Pope Francis led the event to elevate Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII to sainthood, which was also attended by Francis's predecessor Emeritus Pope Benedict. He held strong positions on many topics, including his opposition to capital punishment. Makes the battle with the Beetles worthwhile. With Christopher Lee, Ben Gazzara, Daniele Pecci, Vittoria Belvedere. Wojtyła was an outgoing youth, though always with a serious side. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. “A person's rightful due is to be treated as an object of love, not as an object for use.” ― Pope John … Assigned to Kraków’s St. Florian’s parish in 1949, he studied, wrote, and lectured on philosophy and social and sexual ethics. His mother died when he was nine years old, and his older brother Edmund died when he was 12. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. II Karol Wojtyla 16.X.1978 - 2.IV.2005. The crowd soon broke out … Well regarded for his contributions to the church, John Paul was made a cardinal in 1967 by Pope Paul VI. Back in Kraków, Wojtyła continued his studies in clandestine classes. He spent two and a half months hospitalized, but he fully recovered from his wounds; two days after Christmas in 1983, he went to the prison and met with his would-be assassin. Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Mobster John "Junior" Gotti allegedly served as a capo in the Gambino family and was the acting boss when his father, John Gotti was in prison. One of Wojtyła’s close boyhood friends was a son of the leader of Wadowice’s Jewish community. His pontificate of more than 26 years was the third longest in history. After a dying French nun, Sister Marie Simon-Pierre Normand, prayed to Pope John Paul II for during her battle with Parkinson's disease—the same illness that killed the pope—she was cured. It was announced in July 2013 that he would be declared a saint in April of the following year. Pope John Paul II gestures to the crowd at New York's Shea Stadium, Oct. 3, 1979. The announcement of Pope John Paul II's canonization came after the Vatican revealed that two miracles were attributed to the late pope. Some have stated that he could be harsh with those who disagreed with him and that he would not compromise his hard-line stance on certain issues, such as contraception. He excelled in academics and dramatics, played football (soccer), and, under his father’s guidance, lived a disciplined life of routine religious observance. His pontificate of more than 26 years was the third longest in history. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Omissions? Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, served as empress of Russia for more than three decades in the late 18th century after overthrowing her husband, Peter III. A common reading of this encyclical portrays Pope John Paul as a run-of-the-mill free market liberal, even a moderate libertarian of the socially conservative stripe. He was not without critics, however. One of his doctors also disclosed that John Paul had Parkinson's disease, a brain disorder often characterized by shaking, in 2001. His J. Paul Getty Trust funds the J. Paul Getty Museum and other artistic endeavors. Growing up, John Paul was athletic and enjoyed skiing and swimming. Saint John Paul II, the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church (1978–2005), the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and the first from a Slavic country. But by the mid-1990s, rumors about his behavior were starting to fly, and John Paul passed McCarrick over as archbishop of Chicago in 1997 and New York in 1999. Pope John Paul II born On May 18, 1920, Karol Jozef Wojtyla is born in the Polish town of Wadowice, 35 miles southwest of Krakow. He also issued several unprecedented apologies to groups that historically had been wronged by Catholics, most notably Jews and Muslims. He returned to his native Poland in 1948 and served in several parishes in and around Krakow. His mother, Emilia Kaczorowska, died when he was eight years old; his brother, Edmund, who had become a physician, died less than four years later. Pope John Paul II made history in 1978 by becoming the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. After World War II ended, he finished his religious studies at a Krakow seminary and was ordained in 1946. After the council’s conclusion in 1965, Wojtyła was appointed to Pope Paul VI’s Commission for the Study of Problems of the Family, Population, and Birth Rate. He was the second of two sons born to Karol Wojtyla and Emilia Kaczorowska. Pope John Paul II was ordained in 1946, became the bishop of Ombi in 1958, and became the archbishop of Krakow in 1964. John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. During these years Wojtyła began to write nationalistic plays, and he joined the Rhapsodic Theatre, an underground resistance group that aimed to sustain Polish culture and morale through covert readings of poetry and drama. Address of Pope John Paul II to the Tribunal of the Roman Rota: February 5, 1987 [ English-Italian-] Want to be automatically notified of new documents? In taking the name John Paul II—which his predecessor, John Paul I, had said honoured the two popes of the Second Vatican Council—he signaled his intention to continue with the council’s reforms. But there was never any official announcement about his illness from the Vatican. A vocal advocate for human rights, John Paul often spoke out about suffering in the world. He went to Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 where he showed an interest in theater and poetry. The message of Poland had rippled across all of eastern Europe. John Paul became the bishop of Ombi in 1958 and then the archbishop of Krakow six years later. Karol J. Wojtyla, known as John Paul II since his October 1978 election to the papacy, was born in Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometres from Cracow, on May 18, 1920. Born Karol Józef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland, Pope John Paul II's early life was marked by great loss. In his later years, John Paul's health appeared to be failing. Pope John Paul II Faith Courage Fear Marriage is an act of will that signifies and involves a mutual gift, which unites the spouses and binds them to their eventual souls, with whom they make up a sole family - a domestic church. John Paul II became Pope on 16 October 1978. In 1958 Pope Pius XII appointed him an auxiliary bishop of Kraków. John Paul II’s private conversations with Polish and Soviet leaders contributed to the peaceful end of the Soviet regime in eastern Europe, and his worldwide outreach brought greater visibility to the church. More than 3 million people waited in line to say good-bye to their beloved religious leader at St. Peter's Basilica before his funeral on April 8. Editor’s note: The month marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Pope John Paul II, born Karol Józef Wojtyła on May 18, 1920, in the Polish town of … Pope John Paul II visited Poland for the third time in 1987. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and execution. For two years, while still working at the chemical factory, he attended illegal seminary classes run by Kraków’s cardinal archbishop, Prince Adam Sapieha. S. Ioannes Paulus PP. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On July 5, 2013, waving the usual five-year waiting period, the Vatican announced that the Roman Catholic Church would declare Pope John Paul II a saint and that the canonization ceremony would likely take place within the next 16 months. Benedict XVI began the process to beatify John Paul II in May 2005. At the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) Wojtyła so distinguished himself that halfway through the council, in December 1963, Pope Paul VI named him archbishop of Kraków. Although Wadowice, a town of about 8,000 Catholics and 2,000 Jews, lay only 15 miles (24 km) from the future site of Auschwitz, a Nazi death camp, there was apparently little anti-Semitism in the town before the war. In 1945 the Soviets replaced the Germans as occupiers of Poland. He also became the spiritual leader and mentor of a circle of young adult friends whom he joined on kayaking and camping trips. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? More generally, John Paul used his influence among Catholics and throughout the world to advance the recognition of human dignity and to deter the use of violence. We strive for accuracy and fairness. The council began reviewing church doctrine in 1962, holding several sessions over the course of the next few years. Angelus / Regina Caeli. He was succeeded by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, who became Pope Benedict XVI. St. John Paul II, Latin Johannes Paulus, original name Karol Józef Wojtyła, (born May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland—died April 2, 2005, Vatican City; beatified May 1, 2011; canonized April 27, 2014; feast day October 22), bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church (1978–2005), the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and the first from a Slavic country. By the autumn of 1942 he had decided to enter the priesthood. American businessman J. Paul Getty built his fortune as president of the Getty Oil Company. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! For the next four years, in order to avoid arrest and deportation, he worked in a factory owned by Solvay, a chemical firm that the Nazis considered essential to their war effort. But he was close to home when he faced the greatest threat to his life. Under Pope John Paul II, however, matters began to change. Pope John Paul II had an intimate 32-year relationship with a Polish philosopher who is believed to have once declared her love to him while he was still a … When St. John Paul II died in 2005 after nearly 27 years on the papal throne, his funeral drew millions to St. Peter's Square. On 3 May 1981, an attempt was made on Pope John Paul II's life in Saint Peter's Square. Learn more about his life and papacy. Blessed John Paul died at the age of 84 at the Vatican April 2, 2005, the vigil of Divine Mercy Sunday. 1978; 1979; 1980; 1981; 1982; 1983; 1984 Following the premature death of his mother, Karol Wojtyla is brought up by his father in the Polish city of Krakow during the first half of the 20th century. In 1978, John Paul made history by becoming the first non-Italian pope in more than four hundred years. On September 30, 2013, Pope Francis announced that the canonizations of Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII would occur on April 27, 2014. 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