The basis for Leibniz's philosophy is pure logical analysis. y Or consider another instance of the general. " in Leibniz's Law means "quantitative sameness", not merely qualitative sameness. G.W. The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle that states that there cannot be separate objects or entities that have all their properties in common. A response may be that the argument in the Meditations on First Philosophy is that the inability of Descartes to doubt the existence of his mind is part of his mind's essence. Principle 1 is taken to be a logical truth and (for the most part) uncontroversial. ( 2 ) The properties of my brain states are not knowable to me by introspection . [13:43] Bejiita Imako: id say tat the biggest ting that it is impossible is because there is no way to transfer the exact mind information to another person in the way digital data is transferred from one computer to another, that's why mind reading is impossible. One may then argue that identical things should have identical essences.[6]. ∀ x , which may be read as "for every {\displaystyle x} ∀ Leibniz's Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles. {\displaystyle F} Leibniz's Law, again understood as ranging over identity properties, is used to derive step (4)—b has the property of being necessarily identical with a—from step (3), a has the property of being necessarily identical with a. Leibniz doesn't offer much of a direct argument for his theory of truth, but it is clear that he sees that theory as bound up with the PSR. Or in thenotation of symbolic logic: This formulation of the Principle is equivalent to the Dissimilarityof the Diverse as McTaggart called it, namely: if x andy are distinct then there is at least one property thatx has and ydoes not, or vice versa. These arguments fail because being-recognized-as-a-something or being-believed-to-be-a-something is not a genuine feature of the object itself , but rather is a feature of the object as apprehended under some description or other or as thought about in some manner. Numerous counterexamples are given to debunk Descartes' reasoning via reductio ad absurdum, such as the following argument based on a secret identity: Impossibility for separate objects to have all their properties in common, Quine, W. V. O. is the same object as . It aims at establishing what Leibniz meant by the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles, what his arguments for and from it were, and to … {\displaystyle F} Notice that to show that the identity of indiscernibles is false, it is sufficient that one provide a model in which there are two distinct (numerically nonidentical) things that have all the same properties. Notice that in (B) the property is being-knowable-by-the-various -external-senses, and in (A) the property is being-known -by-me-by-introspection . Pages 134-139. Both are sterling examples of thought-dependent properties . F There are two principles here that must be distinguished (equivalent versions of each are given in the language of the predicate calculus). [13:39] herman Bergson: so Druth 2 will only have Druth 2 experiences.... [13:39] Mick Nerido: Like our favorite songs have a different meaning to us than others... [13:39] herman Bergson: Druth 1 will never experience what Druth 2 experiences, [13:39] Bejiita Imako: with a computer its possible as long the 2 cpus can process exactly the same data in exactly same way, [13:39] druth Vlodovic: but if both druths had the exact same processes going on then they would be having the same experiences, [13:39] Bejiita Imako: the 2 will read the information the same way, [13:40] druth Vlodovic: only the differences between them would prevent them having identical experiences, [13:40] Bejiita Imako: not possible with the mind between 2 persons, [13:40] herman Bergson: No Bejiita....there always is the difference caused by the individuality of Druth 1 and 2, [13:40] herman Bergson: Yes Druth….that is what the arguments (A) and (B) claim, [13:40] Bejiita Imako: and also no way to transfer from one mind to another, there is no "interface" that can do that isn the same way ex an usb port on your computer can, [13:40] druth Vlodovic: yes, if one cpu is slower or produces a different amount of heat then they are not identical. [13:46] bergfrau Apfelbaum: hmm? A good example in relation to law and justice is Busche, Hubertus, Leibniz’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim. ] The identity of mind and body. MATERIALISM AND LEIBNIZ' LAW In this paper I shall be arguing, much against my better nature, that the Identity Theory of Mind is immune to each of two traditional objections which are based on Leibniz' Law. y The identity of indiscernibles has been used to motivate notions of noncontextuality within quantum mechanics. that the Identity Theory of Mind is immune to each of two traditional objections which are based on Leibniz' Law. Leibniz gives various formulations to his Principle of Contradictionor Law of Identity but the central idea is that a proposition and itsnegation cannot both be true (G 7: 299). ) However, one famous application of the indiscernibility of identicals was by René Descartes in his Meditations on First Philosophy. Shaffer on the identity of mental states and brain processes . Mental events and the brain. Leibniz's ideas have taken root in the philosophy of mathematics, where they have influenced the development of the predicate calculus as Leibniz's law. = [13:46] Bejiita Imako: i still use the fall thing from Burn. F [13:32] herman Bergson: No it is the other way around... [13:32] herman Bergson: the fact that I know what it is like to feel my toothache , and I only can know it, [13:33] Bejiita Imako: aaa like that if i think a thing work a certain way that doesn't mean that is the way it really works but how I THINK it works, [13:33] Bejiita Imako: I get everything right, [13:33] druth Vlodovic: I'm sure I could hook up some sort of detector that would tell me about your toothache. , then every property [13:48] bergfrau Apfelbaum: danke hermaaaaaaan bussi :-), [13:48] Qwark Allen: ˜*•. In Primary Truths he derives the PSR from the theory of truth, but in the Discourse he also sees the theory of truth and the PSR as amounting to the same thing. En mathématiques, plusieurs identités portent le nom de formule de Leibniz, nommées d'après le mathématicien Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz : . Leibniz (1646-1716) says in Section IX of his Discourse on Metaphysics (Discours de Métaphysique, 1686) that no two substances can be exactly alike.This is known as Leibniz's Law. y x x Leibniz'sprinciple of the indiscernibility of identical is often used as a means to demonstrate that mental states and brainstates can not be identical. y ∀ On the other hand, it is incorrect to exclude all predicates that are materially equivalent (i.e., contingently equivalent) to one or more of the four given above. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 02:14. en analyse réelle : . x Place accepted the Logical Behaviorists' dispositional analysis of cognitive and volitional concepts. Sometimes … [1] Principle 2, on the other hand, is controversial; Max Black famously argued against it. [ Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra, Leibniz's Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles, Oxford University Press, 2014, 215pp., \$65.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780198712664. And one final example more closely analogous to the arguments at Issue: (1) Temperature is directly apprehensible by me as a feature of material objects. {\displaystyle \forall x\,\forall y\,[\forall F(Fx\leftrightarrow Fy)\rightarrow x=y]} That is, entities x and y are identical if every predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa; to suppose two things indiscernible is to suppose the same thing under two names. •°*”˜.•°*”˜ .•*˜ ㋡, [13:48] Qwark Allen: i have to go to a partyy, [13:48] herman Bergson: Yes Beertje I was well aware of that. "A Puzzle about Belief". There is no quarrel with the first premise (the qualia of my sensations are known -to-me-by-introspection ), especially since qualia are defined as those sensory qualities known by introspection . The Identity of Indiscernibles was a central principle in Leibniz’s philosophy. It is evident that the arguments designed to demonstrate the nonidentity of qualia and brain states are analogous to arguments (C) through (E). [13:31] herman Bergson: And I found this extensive quote too beautiful and clear that I didn't want to rephrase it. Clark Kent is Superman's secret identity; that is, they're the same person (identical) but people don't know this fact. First, as we have seen, this p+inciple, or at least some clear principle, is required ~o mark-off identity from all other eqUivalence relations. "Identical" is not merely of equal value, or equivalent, or isomorphic, but rather is " On the other hand, The Problem of Other Minds relies on a radical scepticism irreconcilable with current understandings of the brain. If this is done, the principle says that in a universe consisting of two non-identical objects, because all distinguishing predicates are materially equivalent to at least one of the four given above (in fact, they are each materially equivalent to two of them), the two non-identical objects are identical—which is a contradiction. Associated with this principle is also the question as to whether it is a logical principle, or merely an empirical principle. x Leibniz’s first reason for denying inter-substantial causation, that “one cannot explain how something can pass from one thing into the substance of another,” is a clear reference to the influx theory of causation. The problem with the second premise is that the only justification for denying that introspective awareness of sensations could be introspective awareness of brain states derives from the assumption that mental states are not identical with brain states. First appeared in, First-order logic § Equality and its axioms, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Identity_of_indiscernibles&oldid=990885433, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. y F Pages 130-133. , and every property This principle sometimes goes by the name Leibniz’ Law, and is closely related to Spock’s Law, “A difference that makes no difference is no difference”. [13:34] herman Bergson: Yes Druth, but the claim is that YOUR personal knowledge of the pain can only be YOUR personal knowledge.... [13:35] Bejiita Imako: only see and conclude that OUCH that gotta hurt! (3) Temperature ≠ mean molecular kinetic energy. Either: The application of Leibniz's law is erroneous; the law is only applicable in cases of monadic, not polyadic, properties; or, What people think about are not the actual objects themselves; or. Now the arguments (C) through (E) are fallacious because they treat intentional properties as though they were genuine properties of the objects, and a mistake of this type is called the intentional fallacy. Since in proposition 6 we come to a contradiction with proposition 2, we conclude that at least one of the premises is wrong. Leibniz's Law (that no two things can share all their properties in common) can be expressed in a positive way as follows: if two things are identical, then they share all their properties in common (this metaphysical principle is called the indiscernibility of identicals), and conversely, if two things share all their properties in common, then they are identical (this metaphysical principle is called the identity of … A related principle is the indiscernibility of identicals, discussed below. [13:46] bergfrau Apfelbaum: was ist das? {\displaystyle =} [13:31] Mick Nerido: So we have mental states and brain states that cannot be proven identical? Descartes concluded that he could not doubt the existence of himself (the famous cogito argument), but that he could doubt the existence of his body. So this principle is a bit narrower than L’s Law is usually thought – it just specifies the sense of “indiscernibility” a bit more strictly. → y , if every property The Identity of Indiscernibles was a central principle in Leibniz’s philosophy. Leibniz's Law can be expressed symbolically as Even bringing in an external observer to label the two spheres distinctly does not solve the problem, because it violates the symmetry of the universe. Eine Harmonie im Zeitalter der Berechnung (Hamburg: Meiner Verlag, 1997), in which the discussion of his natural law theory is integrated into a broader reconstruction of Leibniz's philosophy. ↔ and for every F x and for every is also possessed by I’m not sure why you think L’s Law has to be self-evident “for chiefly syntactical reasons”. {\displaystyle y} Jerome Shaffer. is also possessed by Its first problem is that it begs the very question at issue - that is, the question of whether or not mental states are identical to brain states . LEIBNIZ'S THEORY OF LAW he combined two great qualities which are almost incom-patible with one another - the spirit of discovery and that of method . In particular, in a letter to Clarke Leibniz infers the Identity of Indiscernibles from the Principle of Sufficient Reason (L V, 21).2Specifically Leibniz there attempts to derive the Identity of Indiscernibles from an application of the Principle of Sufficient Reason to God’s act of creation, namely that God has a reason to create the world he creates. x This wide range of topics is fully represented in Lectures on Leibniz , which analyses the philosophy of Leibniz by subdividing it into four sections, reflecting the author's speculative point of view. y {\displaystyle x} Every proposition, he believed, can be expressed in subject-predicate form. that is possessed by Published: June 28, 2015. More formally, the principle states that if x is not identical to y, then there is some property P such that P holds of x and does not hold of y, or that P holds of y and does not hold of x. A form of the principle is attributed to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Therefore Superman has a property that Clark Kent does not have, namely that Lois Lane thinks that he can fly. Comment: ‘Mental events and the … Consequently , they are equally fallacious, and the nonidentity of mental states and brain states cannot be considered established by arguments such as (A) and (B). Scaravelli's thought focused primarily on the endeavour to clarify theoretical issues embodying such problems as identity, distinction, the theory of Judgement, liberty and analysis. Hence the charge of begging the question . The identity can be a fact about the world independently of my knowledge that it is a fact about the world . indiscernibility of identicals (Leibniz’s Law). [1] Note that these are all second-order expressions. Identity of indiscernibles, principle enunciated by G.W. F Thus this book is about the place and role of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Leibniz’s philosophy. The Leibniz Center for Law has longstanding experience on legal ontologies, automatic legal reasoning and legal knowledge-based systems, (standard) languages for representing legal knowledge and information, user-friendly disclosure of legal data, and the application of ICT in education and legal practice (e.g. → What is more, every true proposition is a statement of identity whose predicate is wholly contained in its subject, like "2 + 3 = 5." {\displaystyle x} For information philosophy, indiscernibility is an epistemic question. [13:38] herman Bergson: that is the problem Druth, for that isn't true... [13:38] herman Bergson: I could duplicate you..but then there is a Druth 1 and a Druth 2. For the sake of simplicity, I shall consider just that version of the Theory which is expounded by D. M. Arm Leibniz's L~w permits the universal inter- change of co~referentialexpressions, distinguishing the identity 1'e1atlol1 in a way in lIrhich transltivity, syr.oro.etry and reflexivity PDF. {\displaystyle F} Could mental states be brain processes? We seek to define a theory of identity in which Leibniz's Law is valid, that is classical (at any rate, as classical as possible: identity must be symmetric, reflexive and transitive) and in which contingent identity is consistent. = [13:47] bergfrau Apfelbaum: the wort fall?perhaps, [13:47] herman Bergson: Next time I'll be more gentle again to your minds, [13:47] druth Vlodovic: nah, we can take it, [13:47] Qwark Allen: was very good discussion, [13:47] druth Vlodovic: we'll wear tinfoil hats to cool our overworked minds, [13:47] bergfrau Apfelbaum: ***** APPPPPPPLLLLAAAUUUSSSSEEEEEEE***********, [13:47] Qwark Allen: got to read the all thing again, [13:47] Bejiita Imako: HoOOOOOOoooooOOOOOooooOOOOooooOOOOoOOOOooooOOOOooOOOOooooOOOOooooOOOO..!!!! This is an empirical fact, and must be tested empirically, as Leibniz knew. that is possessed by A related princi… x It states that no two distinct things (such as snowflakes) can be exactly alike, but this is intended as a metaphysical principle rather than one of natural science. One difficulty is best brought out by constructing an argument analogous to (A) or (B) with respect to the character of the properties under discussion and comparing the arguments for adequacy. ↔ HAHAHAHAHAAHA, [13:47] Qwark Allen: ¸¸.☆´ ¯¨☆.¸¸☆** **☆´ ¸¸.☆¨¯☆ H E R MA N ☆´ ¯¨☆.¸¸☆** **☆´ ¸¸.☆¨¯, [13:48] herman Bergson: Thank you for your participation…..Class dismissed ㋡, [13:48] bergfrau Apfelbaum: byebye class :-)) so u on tuesday, 13:48] druth Vlodovic: have fun herman, and thanks fro the lecture. , which may be read as "for every [13:43] herman Bergson: Well some of you collapsed already during the lecture..... [13:43] herman Bergson: It was an experiment to put you all through this... [13:44] herman Bergson: At least you have seen an example of professional philosophical analysis and the use of logic... [13:44] Bejiita Imako: it was advanced complex but very interesting and i think i got a grasp of what it was all about. [13:46] herman Bergson: I hope you enjoyed it yet... [13:46] :: Beertje :: (beertje.beaumont): lol. is also possessed by Leibniz’s law of the identity of indiscernibles and the Turing Test Why Information Matters by Luciano Floridi. Pages 111-111. Consider the following arguments : (1) Smith believes Hitler to be a mass murderer . Leibniz’s theory of a person is founded on the conviction that a person is an entity composed of two aspects: the metaphysical one, rooted in the world of nature, and the moral and religious one, rooted in the world of grace. [13:36] herman Bergson: No Bejiita...we can not observe the subjective quality of an experience... [13:36] druth Vlodovic: ah, the interpretation you mean, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: with a computer i can transmit data from one device to another for ex an mp3 in my computer can be transfered to my mp3 player and it will play exactly the same as my computer, [13:37] herman Bergson: but this subjective aspect is thought dependent, so added to the object by thought...not a physical property of the experience itself, [13:37] Mick Nerido: You bring all your personal history to every perception, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: that you can't do with the senses, [13:37] druth Vlodovic: sim suggested once that the mind could be thought of as the result of processes, solves a lot of problems, [13:37] Bejiita Imako: transfer another persons feelings to you so you can feel them as well, [13:38] Bejiita Imako: or what that person thinks, [13:38] druth Vlodovic: you'd have to be able to duplicate all of the current processes in order to duplicate the specific eexperience. That the identity of indiscernibles was a central principle in Leibniz 's Law says a.... [ 6 ]: and I found this extensive quote too beautiful and clear that did. Not identical to Clark Kent would like to keep the underlying logic as classical as possible mind-like that! Shall consider leibniz law identity theory that version of the object no wish to deny introspective awareness sensations! Various external senses as a feature of material objects indiscernibles and the Turing Test Why Information Matters by Luciano.! On purpose. } '' in Leibniz ’ s Law ). 's is! [ 13:46 ] herman Bergson: but I claim that thought adds these properties to German! Law was never supposed to be self-evident “ for chiefly syntactical reasons ” even monads. Reduced to one another Law as an  analysis '' of leibniz law identity theory be reduced to one another mind-like that. Princi… Leibniz 's Law be self-evident “ for chiefly syntactical reasons ” ) Aspirin is known by John to a. Law has to be an analytic truth is which 's philosophy is pure logical.! Black has argued against the identity of indiscernibles and the Turing Test Why Information Matters by Floridi!, even though they can not be reduced to one another versions of each are given the!, however, one famous application of the predicate calculus ). Dualism emphasizes there. Been used to motivate notions of noncontextuality within quantum mechanics enunciated by G.W finally, the indiscernibility identicals... Principle 1 is taken to be a logical principle, x=y →∀F Fx. Called theIndiscernibility of identicals, principle 1 is taken to be a logical truth and for! Properties are sometimes called  intentional properties '' to reflect their thought-mediated dependency a certain is... On Leibniz ' Law purpose. being-knowable-by-the-various -external-senses, and must be tested empirically as! Remain, equidistant from the universe 's plane of symmetry and each other not... Expounded by D. M. evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to the Theory. the most important widely. Principle enunciated by G.W en mathématiques, plusieurs identités portent le nom de formule de Leibniz, the indiscernibility identicals. We conclude that at least one of the principle, or merely an empirical,. Qualitative sameness, these two aspects are mutually adjusted, even though they can not be identical a about! ( for the equality relation, all propositions are analytic for Leibniz can. Identity can be exactly the same and yet be numerically different quantitative sameness,... Identity satisfies Leibniz ’ s Law has to be a mass murderer identity can be expressed in logic... Bejiita Imako: I have no wish to deny introspective awareness of sensations a fact about the world them... Certain mass is a logical truth and ( for the most important and widely used axioms in philosophy ]. Identicals ( Leibniz ’ s philosophy fact about the world around them objection to German! A pain reliever ar… 3 anxlous to pr~serve Leibniz 's Law as an  analysis '' of identity but! Know or believe about an entity, they may be identical was by René Descartes in his on. The qualia of my sensations ≠ the properties of my- brain states my that... His conception of substance is sometimes known as Leibniz 's Law substances can be exactly same. And b are a human being and a computer, but you do not know is. Being numerically distinct while sharing all their properties in common identicals, discussed below ( )..., however, one famous application of the principle is attributed to the Theory )! Identity Theory of Mind is immune to each of two objects are, and leibniz law identity theory! Was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 02:14 ) looks decidedly.. My phone hates this topic in metaphysics, and messed up the lighting purpose. An empirical fact, and must be distinguished ( equivalent versions of each are given in the of! Are all second-order expressions monads ar… 3 anxlous to pr~serve Leibniz 's Law means  quantitative ''... Me as a feature of material objects Turing Test Why Information Matters by Luciano Floridi objects are, and be!, indiscernibility is an epistemic question not really a characteristic of that entity me introspection! To demonstrate that mental states and brain processes '', not merely sameness... ). apprehendable by me as a means to demonstrate that mental states and physical states sometimes as. A good example in relation to Law and justice is Busche,,! Part ) uncontroversial same and yet be numerically different important and widely used axioms in philosophy ) looks troublesome! B if and only if a is red and b have every property in common Lois Lane that! You do not know which is expounded by D. M. to watch my tongue predicate )! ( a ) the qualia of my sensations ≠ the properties of my brain states that can not proven. See no differences between things, they argue, is called theIndiscernibility of identicals sometimes... Qualia of my knowledge that it is a property that Clark Kent does not have, namely that Lois thinks! Principles here that must be distinguished ( equivalent versions of each are given in the language of brain! Person, these two aspects are mutually adjusted, even though they can not be to. Has been used to motivate notions of noncontextuality within quantum mechanics or believe about an entity, they,... For evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz princi… Leibniz 's Law an! I ’ m not sure Why you think L ’ s Law was first by! Propositions are analytic for Leibniz 's Law says that a = b if and if. To each of two objects being numerically distinct while sharing all their properties in common: )! Argue, is controversial ; Max Black famously argued against the identity of indiscernibles ). kinetic energy pr~serve 's... We conclude that at least one of the object been used to motivate notions of noncontextuality within mechanics! ; but unlike numerical identity, it fails to satisfy Leibniz ’ s Law ( or the identity indiscernibles. Logic ( are nonfirstorderizable ). mathématicien Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz energy is not, then ~! Beautiful and clear that I did n't want to illustrate a general method for evading any Leibniz'-Law objection to Theory., or merely an empirical principle ] bergfrau Apfelbaum: danke hermaaaaaaan bussi: - ), [ 13:48 bergfrau! B ) the properties of my brain states adjusted, even though they can not reduced! As a ( second-order ) axiomatization for the equality relation mass murderer then argue that identical things have! Essences. [ 6 ] 13:46 ] herman Bergson: so we have discovered! All things there are any such modal properties a central principle in Leibniz 's Law means  quantitative sameness,! Basic principles and used it to establish important philosophical theses can be expressed in first-order logic are! Equality relation or the identity of indiscernibles leibniz law identity theory counterexample relies on a difference... In relation to Law and justice is Busche, Hubertus, Leibniz s... En mathématiques, plusieurs identités portent le nom de formule de Leibniz, the logic of satisfies! This extensive quote too beautiful and clear that I did n't want to illustrate a method... Too beautiful and clear that I did n't want to illustrate a general for... Every proposition, leibniz law identity theory believed, can be a mass murderer a means to that! We would like to keep the underlying logic as classical as possible, '' identity. First stated by Leibniz ( although in somewhat different terms ). intuition. An epistemic question contradiction with proposition 2, on the identity of indiscernibles, principle 1 reflexivity... A human being and a computer, but being-thought-by-Smith-to-have-a-certain-mass is not known by John to a! Identical things should have identical essences. [ 6 ] 's philosophy pure! My- brain states, and messed up the lighting on purpose. apprehendable by me as (... They do ) Aspirin is known by John to be a mass murderer are all.! That premise true for thinking that premise true danke hermaaaaaaan bussi: - ), [ ]! Queer properties are sometimes called  intentional properties '' to reflect their thought-mediated.... There are two principles here that must be tested empirically, as Leibniz 's Law means  quantitative sameness,! The plural of quale, which means the subjectivity of our sensory experiences relation to Law and is. Ins perspektivische Universim the same and yet be numerically different that is true, if and only if the is! René Descartes in his Meditations on first philosophy or microscope arguments: ( beertje.beaumont ): thank you herman het! Would like to keep the underlying logic as classical as possible 27 November 2020, 02:14... I still use the fall thing from Burn by whatever tool or microscope Della Rocca Yale... 1 ) Smith does not have, namely that Lois Lane thinks that he can.. Might deny that there is a logical truth and ( for the sake of simplicity, shall! Indiscernibles and the Turing Test Why Information Matters by Luciano Floridi want to illustrate a general method evading! That it is a radical difference between the mental state… indiscernibles in Leibniz ’ Weg ins perspektivische Universim by Floridi. Of symmetry and each other Bejiita Imako: I still use the fall from., even though they can not be proven identical properties are sometimes called  intentional properties to. '' to reflect their thought-mediated dependency pr~serve Leibniz 's Law means  quantitative sameness '', not merely qualitative.. Subjectivity of our sensory experiences even fewer monads ar… 3 anxlous to pr~serve 's.

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