�1���_��w�[I;��e����\�v�`���^ Recent forays into the joint inversion of surface waves and body waves from portable arrays (e.g., Friederich, 2003; van der Lee et al., 2001b; West et al., 2004a), are mostly in an embryonic stage, but hold promise of major improvements in imaging with further development. (2) Ground strains caused by body and surface waves have been analyzed for original data and its separated body and surface waves. /Type /Page >> moment-tensor inversion using regional surface waves. In our model, the scattering mean free path of body waves is depth dependent as a consequence of the body-to-surface coupling. endobj Body waves can propagate into the interior of the corresponding medium, whereas surface waves are concentrated along the surface of the medium. Thereby, waves do appear in various forms and differ in their characteristics. Body Waves The body waves propagate within a body of rock. As their name suggests, surface waves travel just below the surface of the ground. >> The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave.This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station. t�5�O�n�(�Te�����m!4「"]�Uͫ���)�e*�j���bW�Ձ��=���c/�]J��ħ]�T��/ݤ��G�*�U���J�R���!RQ�Ń�E�p��$xi�ZiP��$�'}2d^���XԀVW)�Q�n0芊�:��o��l���VnB�GZ�҇�KZ�N���.�1l0 Ҫ������ �lC#���~�4[Nj�%.� h��#�+4�C��h�F�{:�%j���� ��ߡݞ���@#z�#�h����q#-h�S�������`�H��ң1�іq���̶]]%�∲@�Y�m�%u���6-T�oj¡�ᒁ��uTt�5v6P9�rLWY�}9/��Ui�pԘ.���AҨ�F���"R�]�������Q������G�?���OHuxD�N�qa�� ��na��ަ���īc�������J�07�wG��t��}!6�Je��x�-#P=����"x���N�������>>C��� ,a_���C. stream Surface Waves. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Coords [0 0.0 0 272.12549] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /C0 [1 1 1] /C1 [0.75 0.5 0.25] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> /ExtGState << /Annots [ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 28 0 R 29 0 R 30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R ] /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] Free Surface Water Waves z x y y=h(x,y,t) or F(x,y,z,t) = 0 B(x,y,z,t) = 0 Figure 1. Surface waves Introduction As a result of geometric spreading in 2-D, the energy carried by surface waves decays with distance r from the source as 1/r; this is in contrast to 1/r2 for body waves, which is why they are usually much less prominent on a seismogram. /Type /XObject The rest of the energy, which is most of the energy, is radiated from the focus of the earthquake in the form of seismic waves. These waves are similar in many important ways to the familiar waves in air generated by a hand-clap or in water generated by a stone thrown into water. S��W���ut�R�y��"��buXEh�}�촴kF�숟C�F����pGNF��Y���`. /MediaBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] Free surface water wave problem. /FormType 1 specific energy density of surface and body waves in a medium containing a homogeneous distribution of point scatterers. Multiscale adjoint waveform tomography for surface and body waves Yanhua O. Yuan 1, Frederik J. Simons , and Ebru Bozdağ2 ABSTRACT We have developed a wavelet-multiscale adjoint scheme for the elastic full-waveform inversion of seismic data, including body waves (BWs) and surface waves (SWs). P WAVES The … 17 0 obj << /Subtype /Form ��5�Z!YV�,U��;��d&�_�@�Azxx���33��o��{��� ���篷��?�����o�}��z����-���x�i|�>�[�c��~����������������������_�ߎ/��*}���y�s�����yh��^�p#��_�g��m����|ϓeW��b����7��R��vy/-}�r����7��VF���w�;�+(3���|��|�y\���^���Aw��뼑7�5u�=o�����/��^��K��͏��J9�{;#��0�ϓ����8_��c��@[#O.f��v=/�3�\�z"���W��o������r�sȥ}�yM1��Q{�!c{z�V����g���7���>����c�F�>62�9�ӽ��8�Θü�*�'�N��o�9`s�w����1�\��C_b+7�/��������`�@��8�yc���ہ1��y��|�������G��lp�$��Zϴ�9�u���g�9ͳG��8[��2���v>�vB�ٽ=��8+L��Q�;6�5�n���@�?�l�cF�����덽���������s��g��U�ٲ)5̩Չ��c��Г+O0��u��C¢΋���3��\�s>y�ɜ�`?py.~�o؈���?��*@݁���t�ֵ����s��ɸ��,���J���(�4 �wO#���V���꿾��0J:K?���/�w����������3���3�z�,�:�Y�. Seismic waves can be classified into two basic types: body waves which travel through the Earth and surface waves, which travel along the Earth's surface. At longer lapse-time, the surface waves couple with body waves and the coda eventually reaches an equipartition regime when all the propagative surface and body wave modes are excited to equal energy (Weaver 1982; Hennino et al. \g��K�$[n&����D�2U#T�I5�"OO|��F��v����N���! /Resources 18 0 R 2001). Our preferred model, which based on the MDC fault plane, local JMA hypocenter and calibrated alignments of body and surface waves, revealed a complex rupture process. << /S /GoTo /D [12 0 R /Fit ] >> x��}In.Kvޜ�� In order to determine an exact equation for the problem of free surface gravity waves we will assume potential theory (ideal °ow) and ignore the efiects of viscosity. 16 0 obj << stream 50 0 obj << <> These waves cause shaking that is felt, and cause damage in various ways. <> >> x� endstream A general /Length 8 BODY WAVES Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. forward and back-scattered surface waves; and (3) body-to-surface scattered waves (Figure 1). Surface waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. /Length 15 fRi6g���ߤ�!�j J�.O��ʈR�� When an earthquake occurs, some of the energy it releases is turned into heat within the earth. >> �;f e1�2�j�!P��b�m'dq)��k���RH����b�x�:A�G�s"8M3͓�Cg stream a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake ____ 65. 47 0 obj << >> endobj earthquake; these are body waves and surface waves. Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. /FormType 1 t�=�}��`457�G�Q�D On the other hand, surface waves propagate only at the interface between two different media, like the interface between Earth and atmosphere (i.e. waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. endobj /BBox [0 0 16 16] /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /Resources 48 0 R 19 0 obj << /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [7.99997 7.99997 0.0 7.99997 7.99997 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> Much of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors. /Subtype /Form $��獶!����az�s�[?zbr�Ǧ���D�Xރ�A�P���\���Q�,��W ��ɶ;?����$*"b}�Rt�䢌�s����;�����:$o,�HH �������?Gf��eb��E"���eL�6�($K�8k|��[.-n�(�Xn`�.^��ί���-pxs1e)��|��C�d�P�ȱP ����,*��%�1��+�%����뇼��#Y�c�� ���s&"Wd�0\��94B#�O��M63�c�����6V �a��������܁���=!��E�(�rZ��e�.���G�wd� ��Cbv�y@��cK���dh�#��g6��)�du��(�� `�C�dC�x�N�o �^B /FormType 1 2 0 obj /Matrix [1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000] /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /FormType 1 3 0 obj /Type /XObject %PDF-1.4 /PTEX.FileName (./figs/anulogo.pdf) how waves propagate from an earthquake hypocenter to seismic stations across the globe. • Surface waves propagate along a boundary surface. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Coords [3.99998 3.99998 0.0 3.99998 3.99998 3.99998] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> >> A. /Resources << x���P(�� ��endstream 48 0 obj << This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] The first type of body wave is called the primary wave or pressure wave, and is commonly referred to as P-waves. stream A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface. 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