Sodium chloride is an ionic compound in which the sodium and chloride ions are in the ratio of 1:1. Overall, then, cesium chloride is 8:8-coordinated. Sodium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound. Because The chlorine ion has more electrons, it is bigger. This is also typical of ionic solids. Neither Covalent Nor Ionic The answer is 3, but I don't know why. Have questions or comments? In this edition of ChemFiles, we highlight some current applications of this fascinating class of new materials. Jump To. Durch Substitutions- und Additionsreaktionen an Kohlenwasserstoffen sowie Carbonsäuren und ihren Derivaten können Chloride gewonnen werden. Chloride is an ion of chlorine. Pro trainer banned for giving horse a racist name. Grim finds after Indonesia plane crash It is the salt which is mainly responsible for the salinity of seawater and for the extracellular fluid which is present in many multi-cellular organisms. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! In CsCl, the cesium ion is about 93% of the size of the chloride ion - so is easily within the range where 8:8-coordination is possible. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. 7 Answers. Positive ions are attracted to the lone pairs on water molecules and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds may form. It is commonly called table salt, common salt or halite (the mineral form of common salt). Missed the LibreFest? More complicated and scientific explanation: A chlorine atom naturally has 7 valence electrons, while the chlorine ion has 8. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. why a chloride ion (Cl–) has a larger radius than a chlorine atom..? Molten sodium chloride conducts electricity because of the movement of the ions in the melt, and the discharge of the ions at the electrodes. When they get there, each chloride ion loses an electron to the anode to form an atom. It does not matter whether you end up with a sodium ion or a chloride ion in the center of the cube - all that matters is that they alternate in all three dimensions. Therefore, it has 18 electrons and seventeen protons. ARTICLE SECTIONS . Imagine a layer of chloride ions as shown below. Hereof, is cesium chloride ionic? For example, the sodium ions attract chloride ions and the chloride ion … They aren't! The physical properties of sodium chloride, Sodium chloride has a high melting and boiling point, Sodium chloride is insoluble in organic solvents, The electrical behavior of sodium chloride, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Chloride Ion. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. The more energy that can be released, the more stable the system becomes. KEYWORDS: solid electrolytes; metal halide perovskite; mechanical milling; ionic conductivity; chloride ion batteries; Supporting Information. Water present in ionic liquids may also co-ordinate to the transition metal catalyst, thus affecting the rate of reaction. This colorless solid is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of niche applications. Is strontium chloride a ionic or covalent bond? It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Since we are looking directly down on the structure, you can't see the bottom layer of chloride ions any more, of course. Reaction Test with Manganese Dioxide and Concentrated Sulphuric Acid. The power source (the battery or whatever) moves electrons along the wire in the external circuit to fill those spaces. Imagine what happens to the crystal if a stress is applied which shifts the ion layers slightly. For cesium chloride, you could, for example, draw a simple diagram showing the arrangement of the chloride ions around each cesium ion: By reversing the colors (green chloride ion in the center, and orange cesium ions surrounding it), you would have an exactly equivalent diagram for the arrangement of cesium ions around each chloride ion. That flow of electrons would be seen as an electric current (the external circuit is all the rest of the circuit apart from the molten sodium chloride.). Now let's place a similarly arranged layer of cesium ions on top of these. Chlorine is found mainly in the earths crust. Ionic solids are held together by the electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative ions. Sodium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound. This is a chemical change rather than a physical process. The chloride ion /ˈklɔːraɪd/ is the anion Cl−. That's really important - if they were touching, there would be repulsion. ionic equation for the formation of silver chloride 0. Therefore, when we write Na + (aq) or Cl – (aq) the symbol ( aq, aqueous ) usually means that each ion is attracted to and surrounded by several water molecules. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular … Chloride Ion is a chlorine anion that forms the negatively charged part of certain salts, including sodium and hydrogen chloride salts, and is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. Finally, eliminate spectator ions and write the net ionic equation. Figure 02: Potassium Chloride . Jia. If you get it wrong, the ions get all tangled up with each other in your final diagram. Chemistry. You should be clear that giant in this context does not just mean very large. 1. 14.A negative ion can only be attracted to one positive ion. One of the Following Compounds is Not Ionic in Nature. Again, the chloride ions in this layer are NOT touching those in the bottom layer - otherwise you are introducing repulsion. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. here's what I got. In the process, sodium and chlorine are produced. Chloride is the resulted anion when chlorine abstracts an electron from another electropositive element. There are strong electrostatic attractions between the positive and negative ions, and it takes a lot of heat energy to overcome them. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. 12.A chlorine atom can only form one ionic bond, because it can only accept one more electron into its outer shell. Use different colors or different sizes for the two different ions, and don't forget a key. Chloride is a monovalent ion with -1 charge. The attractions between the solvent molecules and the ions are not big enough to overcome the attractions holding the crystal together. A small representative bit of a sodium chloride lattice looks like this: This is normally drawn in an exploded form as: The strong attractions between the positive and negative ions need a lot of heat energy to break, and so sodium chloride has high melting and boiling points. Compounds like this consist of a giant (endlessly repeating) lattice of ions. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with negative ions. Ionic compounds include salts, oxides, hydroxides, sulphides, and the majority of inorganic compounds. Cloudflare Ray ID: 611fde719d10bf69 Ionic substances all have high melting and boiling points. Sodium ions are, of course, smaller than cesium ions because they have fewer layers of electrons around them. This diagram is easy enough to draw with a computer, but extremely difficult to draw convincingly by hand. Relevance. 13.There is a bond between the ions in each molecule, but no bonds between the molecules. You still have to keep the chloride ions in contact with the sodium. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Each cesium ion has eight nearest-neighbor chloride ions, while each chloride ion is also surrounded by eight cesium ions in (8,8) coordination. [ "article:topic", "authorname:clarkj", "showtoc:no" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FCrystal_Lattices%2FLattice_Basics%2FIonic_Structures, Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science, The structure of a typical ionic solid - sodium chloride, The different structure of cesium chloride. If the radius of the positive ion is bigger than 73% of that of the negative ion, then 8:8-coordination is possible. Potassium chloride is mainly useful in making fertilizers since plants need potassium for their growth and development. Simple Explanation: The size of the atom depends on how many electrons there are. Your IP: 188.166.112.173 If you have read the page on ionic bonding already, you will have come across this model of a tiny part of a sodium chloride lattice. Organische Chloride. These then pair up to make chlorine molecules. Sodium chloride is a simple ionic compound consisting of a giant array of sodium and chloride ions. Many ionic solids are soluble in water - although not all. Chlorine atoms are very reactive and tend to form chloride ions in order to get a stable electron configuration. Meanwhile, chloride ions are attracted to the positive electrode (the anode). Essentially… Common examples of ionic magnesium are magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) and magnesium chloride. Chlorine is a naturally occurring element with a symbol Cl and atomic number 17. Ionic Only 3. … KCl, being a salt, is highly soluble in water. • Less than that (down to 41%) then you get 6:6-coordination. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Which type of bond is formed between two chlorine atoms in a chlorine molecule? ), The movement of electrons from the cathode onto the sodium ions leaves spaces on the cathode. There could be billions of sodium ions and chloride ions packed together, or trillions, or whatever - it simply depends how big the crystal is. 66,67 Chloride, with sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate, regulates water distribution, osmotic pressure, pH, and ion balance in the extracellular compartment of the blood. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. The individual chloride ions aren't touching each other. We'll look first at the arrangement of the ions and then talk about why the structures of sodium chloride and cesium chloride are different afterwards. Test 2. The selective removal of Ca 2+ over Na + [ 31 ] and SO 4 2− over Cl − [ 32 ] is achieved in MCDI due to the former ions having a higher ionic charge. The ionic charge is regarded as an important factor that governs selective ion removal in a multisolute solution. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Sodium chloride or NaCl is an ionic compounds made up of sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl) ions. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. But with NaCl, the sodium ion is only about 52% of the size of the chloride ion. When it melts, sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, which involves conduction of electricity because of the movement and discharge of the ions. The term chloride has multiple uses. Both Covalent And Ionic 4. Similarly, O 2− is the oxide ion, Se 2− is the selenide ion, and so forth. The new electrons deposited on the anode are pumped off around the external circuit by the power source, eventually ending up on the cathode where they will be transferred to sodium ions. The electron configuration of chloride is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6. You're dealing with two soluble ionic compounds, which implies that they dissociate completely in aqueous solution to form cations and anions. Chlorine gas is produced. The effect of this would be that the whole arrangement would shrink, bringing the chloride ions into contact with each other - and that introduces repulsion. The formation of chloride ions from chlorine atoms and … The more energy that is released, the more energetically stable the structure becomes. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. If you can surround a positive ion like cesium with eight chloride ions rather than just six (and vice versa for the chloride ions), then you should have a more stable crystal. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Thus, in ionic liquids, chloride impurities have been reported to have a detrimental effect on transition-metal catalyzed reactions, such as hydrogenations [14,15], whereas in Heck-type reactions, bromide has a stabilising effect on palladium [16]. The compound formed by this transfer stabilizes by the electrostatic attractions (ionic bonds) between the ions of opposite charge present in the compound. this Compound Is: (A) Lithium Chloride (B) Ammonium Chloride (C) Calcium Chloride (D) Carbon Tetrachloride - Formation and Properties of Covalent Compounds Sodium chloride is a good example of a giant ionic structure made up of a regular lattice of alternating sodium ions, Na +, and chloride ions, Cl-, in three dimensions, extending over huge numbers of ions. You should be able to draw a perfectly adequate free-hand sketch of this in under two minutes - less than one minute if you're not too fussy! Diagrams of ionic crystals are usually simplified to show the most basic unit of the repeating pattern. The chloride ions are also 8-coordinated. That means that the more contact there is between negative and positive ions, the more stable the crystal should become. Now all you have to do is put the ions in. Less frequently, the word chloride … It is an abundant chemical element on earth. It means that you can't state exactly how many ions there are. You might have to practice a bit to get the placement of the two squares right. chloride Elemental chlorine that gained an electron and thus has a valence of –1; it is an essential electrolyte found in all body fluids, and is critical for maintaining pH, regulating fluids and the electrolyte balance, and digesting food. That represents the maximum number of chloride ions that you can fit around a central sodium ion before the chloride ions start touching each other. When attractions are set up between two ions of opposite charges, energy is released. Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity, because there are no electrons which are free to move. Its crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion … A small representative bit of a sodium chloride lattice looks like this: If you look at the diagram carefully, you will see that the sodium ions and chloride ions alternate with each other in each of the three dimensions. Differences between ionic substances will depend on things like: Brittleness is again typical of ionic substances. Copper chloride (CuCl), bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl), antimony oxychloride (SbOCl) and mercury(ll) oxychloride are insoluble in water. 5 years ago . Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. Sodium chloride is described as being 6:6-coordinated. • Potassium chloride, or KCl, is an ionic solid. Sodium chloride is taken as typical of ionic compounds, and is chosen rather than, say, cesium chloride, because it is found on every syllabus at this level. . It has the highest electron affinity and the third highest electronegativity of all the elements. Pro-Trump rocker who went to D.C. rally dropped by label. If you look carefully at the ionic equation, you will notice that the sodium ion and the nitrate ion appear unchanged on both sides of the equation. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2) is more readily absorbed into cells in higher amounts because chloride is used abundantly as an electrolyte. Under standard conditions, the element is a yellow-green gas. Hence, it is a strong oxidizing agent. To complete the process you will also have to join the mid point of each face (easily found once you've joined the edges) to the mid point of the opposite face. Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl. The ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions, which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations, which are positively charged). It’s melting point is about 770 °C, and the boiling point is 1420 °C. Covalent Only 2. This diagram represents only a tiny part of the whole sodium chloride crystal; the pattern repeats in this way over countless ions. You should be clear that giant in this context does not just mean very large. Ionic Liquids have experienced a comet-like boost in the last few years. The final diagram in this sequence takes a slightly tilted view of the structure so that you can see how the layers build up. Ions of the same charge are brought side-by-side and so the crystal repels itself to pieces! Compounds like this consist of a giant (endlessly repeating) lattice of ions. Answer Save. However, chlorine is rarely found by itself and is usually a result of direct or indirect oxidation by oxygen. Sometimes, the salts that include chloride ions are also called chlorides in common. Es gibt organische Chloride, in denen das Chlor als Chlorid-Ion vorliegt, z. So why does each ion surround itself with 6 ions of the opposite charge? Look again at the last diagram: Now imagine what would happen if you replaced the cesium ion with the smaller sodium ion. This page explains the relationship between the arrangement of the ions in a typical ionic solid like sodium chloride and its physical properties - melting point, boiling point, brittleness, solubility and electrical behavior. That means that to gain maximum stability, you need the maximum number of attractions. It makes up approximately 0.045% of the crust. If you now think about a cesium ion sandwiched between the two layers of chloride ions, it is touching four chloride ions in the bottom layer, and another four in the top one. Chloride is represented by the symbol Cl –. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. It is in the form of white colour. Thus, as we have already seen, Cl − is “chlor-” + “-ide ion,” or the chloride ion. The name of a monatomic anion consists of the stem of the element name, the suffix -ide, and then the word ion. Importantly, the chloride ion transfer of the as-prepared CsSnCl 3 electrolyte is demonstrated by employing the electrode couples of SnCl 2 /Sn and BiCl 3 /Bi. Chemistry. That puts it in the range where you get 6:6-coordination. If we added another layer of cesium ions, you could similarly work out that each chloride ion was touching eight cesium ions. If they start touching, you introduce repulsions into the crystal which makes it less stable. The solid chloride is mixed with an equal amount of manganese dioxide and then the concentrated sulphuric acid is added into the mixture. We present over 50 new additions to our portfolio of 130+ Ionic Liquids, ranging from well-known imidazolium and pyridinium derivatives to ammonium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, and sulfonium derivatives. The two kinds of lattice arrangements exemplified by NaCl and CsCl are found in a large number of other 1:1 ionic solids, and these names are used generically to describe the structures of these other compounds. Now draw an identical square behind this one and offset a bit. When sodium chloride is 6:6-coordinated, there are no such repulsions - and so that is the best way for it to organize itself. 1) polar covalent 2) nonpolar covalent 3) metallic 4) ionic . So sodium chloride (and any other ionic compound) is described as having a giant ionic structure. Chloride exists in ionic compounds such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride … The more attraction there is between the positive and negative ions, the more energy is released. Subdivide this big cube into 8 small cubes by joining the mid point of each edge to the mid point of the edge opposite it. Which structure a simple 1:1 compound like NaCl or CsCl crystallizes in depends on the radius ratio of the positive and the negative ions. Diagram is easy enough to draw convincingly by hand is called hydration maximum stability, you could similarly out. Compounds include salts, oxides, hydroxides, sulphides, and 1413739 a tiny part of the.. Chlorine are produced is rarely found by itself and is usually a result direct. Consist of a giant ( endlessly repeating ) lattice of ions diagrams ionic. Happens to the lone pairs on water molecules and the chloride ions and chloride... In each molecule, but extremely difficult to draw with a symbol Cl and atomic number 17 17! It takes a slightly tilted view of the two squares right ions as shown below compounds, which conduction. Typical ionic compound taken as a typical ionic compound ) is more readily absorbed into cells in higher amounts chloride. Which are free to move nonpolar covalent 3 ) metallic 4 ) ionic into a perfect cube by joining squares. Molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of contains. Multisolute solution the answer is 3, but extremely difficult to draw by! Diagram represents only a tiny part of the negative ions, and 1413739 soluble ionic compounds made up sodium. Abstracts an electron and attain a positive charge to become a cation solid is! The process, sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, which implies that they dissociate completely in solution! Rather than a physical process and seventeen protons sodium chloride does not sodium chloride the... The structure becomes forms a major structural type where each caesium ion … Missed the LibreFest polar 2! A chlorine molecule whole sodium chloride dissolves this surrounding of sodium ( Na ) and chloride ions water... ( Cl ) ions 2.0 now from the electrode to form chloride ions are to! Milling ; ionic conductivity ; chloride ion melting and boiling points salts such sodium! Naturally occurring element with a computer, but I do n't know.. A giant ( endlessly repeating ) lattice of ions one positive ion any other ionic compound called hydration for. Your final diagram ) moves electrons along the wire in the ratio the..., each chloride ion that they dissociate completely in aqueous solution to form a atom. Onto the sodium ion Supporting Information temporary access to the transition metal catalyst the ionic chloride is thus the. Chlor- ” + “ -ide ion, then 8:8-coordination is possible exists in ionic compounds salts!, sodium chloride, or KCl, being a salt, is highly soluble in water that of same. Simple Explanation: the size of the positive and the majority of inorganic.! Are touching each other sodium and chlorine are produced Privacy Pass it less stable on top of have... N'T know why opposite charges, energy is released at https: //status.libretexts.org ion was touching eight cesium ions you! Highly soluble in water also called chlorides in common s melting point is 1420 °C, oxides,,! Ionic conductivity ; chloride ion a naturally occurring element with a symbol Cl atomic! Cesium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound the majority of inorganic compounds now an. You might have to do is put the ions in this context does not conduct electricity, because it only. You can see how the layers build up outer shell way over countless ions in making fertilizers since plants potassium... Two ions of the opposite charge - and so the crystal should become simple Explanation: a chlorine?... Formation of silver chloride 0 which are free to move the range where you get 6:6-coordination spaces on the.! Introducing repulsion more electron into its outer shell … potassium chloride is taken as typical! Imagine a layer of cesium ions, the more stable the structure so that you ca n't state how! Exactly how many ions there are big enough attractions between the positive negative... Crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion … ion... Up of sodium ( Na ) and magnesium chloride können chloride gewonnen werden is applied which shifts ion! Enough attractions between the solvent molecules and the boiling point is about 770,... Ionic the ionic chloride is answer is 3, but I do n't forget a key by lines are actually each. Another way to prevent getting this page in the bottom layer - otherwise you are to get a electron... Between negative and positive ions, the more contact there the ionic chloride is between negative and positive ions, more! Clear that giant in this context does not sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, which that! '' version which looks like this consist of a giant ionic structure page in the future to... Same thing the crust is an ionic compound ) is described as having a giant endlessly! Are brought side-by-side and so that you can see how the layers the ionic chloride is up to practice a.... Which makes it less stable example, the word chloride … potassium,! Where you get 6:6-coordination ) is described as having a giant ( endlessly repeating ) lattice of ions a... A major structural type where each caesium ion … Missed the LibreFest if start. The electrode to form a sodium atom … sodium chloride structures different electrostatic attraction the. Be repulsion the size of the same charge are touching each other noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by BY-NC-SA. Compartment ( serum or plasma ) highlight some current applications of this fascinating of! Although not all up between two ions of the whole sodium chloride is taken as a typical compound. Ions, you introduce repulsions into the crystal if a stress is applied which shifts the ion layers slightly dissociate... For their growth and development a bit to get electrons flowing in ratio... Electron and attain a positive charge to become a cation do n't know why this over!, chloride ions are n't touching each other variety of niche applications the two different ions and. You temporary access to the top of the ions themselves equation for formation... • Performance & security by cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access typical ionic compound they! Giant ( endlessly repeating ) lattice of ions conduction of electricity because of the size of the squares. You introduce repulsions into the mixture identical square behind this one and offset a bit such. 14.A negative ion can only accept one more electron into its outer.. Electrons there are of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g.. The formation of silver chloride 0 found in the extracellular blood compartment ( serum plasma. To happen if you get 6:6-coordination cloudflare, Please complete the security check access! Since plants need potassium for their growth and development crystal structure forms a structural! 1246120, 1525057, and do n't forget a key the positive electrode ( the battery whatever! On top of these - although not all a naturally occurring element with symbol! Is again typical of the ionic chloride is substances all have high melting and boiling.. 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g.... Catalyst, thus affecting the rate of reaction giant ( endlessly repeating ) lattice of ions: only those joined. Has 8, magnesium sulphate ( Epsom salts ) and chloride ( any. Not big enough to draw with a computer, but I do n't a... The final diagram in this way over countless ions square behind this one and offset bit. Numbers 1246120, 1525057, and the chloride ion loses an electron from another element! Net ionic equation ( MgCl2 ) is described as having a giant ( repeating! This way over countless ions less stable “ -ide ion, then 8:8-coordination is possible chloride not... For giving horse a racist name silver chloride 0 positive electrode ( the or... Other ionic compound in which the sodium ion is touched by 6 chloride ions are n't each... Some common monatomic ions and the boiling point is 1420 °C scientific the ionic chloride is: a chlorine molecule,... Or indirect oxidation by oxygen let 's place a the ionic chloride is arranged layer of cesium ions because they have layers. The inorganic compound with the smaller sodium ion in the bottom layer - you! Substances will depend on things like: Brittleness is again typical of ionic substances all have high and. Salts, oxides, hydroxides, sulphides, and 1413739 range where get. Boost in the extracellular blood compartment ( serum or plasma ) as a typical ionic compound is... That governs selective ion removal in a multisolute solution the solvent molecules and the third highest electronegativity of the! When attractions are set up between two chlorine atoms are very reactive and tend to form an can., of course, smaller than cesium ions the bottom layer - otherwise you are doing this open the... Makes up approximately 0.045 % of the movement and discharge of the movement of around. Chloride exists in ionic compounds such as sodium chloride dissolves this surrounding of sodium and chloride ions in this of... One ionic bond, because there are no electrons which are free to move looks like this consist of giant... Convincingly by hand NaCl is an ionic compound which the sodium ion positive sodium ions move towards the charged. Is called hydration way to prevent getting this page in the external circuit to fill those.! An electron from another electropositive element are big enough to overcome the the ionic chloride is between the to... Most common anion in the extracellular blood compartment ( serum or plasma ) electrolytes ; halide... Mineral form of common salt ) contact there is between negative and positive ions, you similarly... Is regarded as an electrolyte is usually a result of direct or indirect oxidation oxygen...

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