U.S. Berger, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. The low inherent noise of the GaAs FET transistor is used to increase the sensitivity of the receiver section of the radio repeater. Amplifier circuits can be designed that cover 10% bandwidths, and therefore frequency adjustment is not required in the field. Their high efficiency comes from the possibility to grow three or more junctions for the same cell. (Arsenic and arsenic compounds have been evaluated as IARC Group 1, carcinogenic to humans.) Markham, ... J.G. The efficiency of 25.2% measured under AM0 1-sun illumination was achieved in AlGaAs–GaAs–InGaAsP three-junction cells consisting of a monolithic AlGaAs–GaAs tandem mechanically stacked with an InGaAsP (Eg=0.95 eV) single-junction cell. Semiconductor lasers have been developed to the point where they are one of the key components in commercial home entertainment systems, such as video and compact disk players. The first experiments with incorporation of down-shifting species in GaAs-based solar cells were conducted by Hovel et al. The performance of this class of transistor was a result of the high electron mobility of the class III–V elements in the periodic table and the ability to design more nearly planar transistor geometries. The arrays are staggered on the focal plane and span the 185 -km FOV. The many uses of gallium can result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Materials are carefully chosen to absorb nearly the entire solar spectrum. Gallium arsenide-based multijunction solar cells are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching the record efficiency of 42.3% with a triple-junction metamorphic cell [48]. Furthermore, the high quality of the direct III–V semiconductors obtained by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique contributes to their high efficiency. But his cell is made of gallium arsenide and capable of generating a lot of power. [After Thompson (1980).]. Wide-band-gap cells in these tandems, however, can be made only from such materials as AlGaAs, GaInP, and GaPAs, which are not lattice-matched to silicon. Series resistance of the n+GaAs-p+Ge tunnel junction formed on the interface limited the effective operation of these tandem cells to 10 suns only. A common amplifier in the receiver input, if not designed to have low intermodulation characteristics, can result in undesirable interchannel cross talk during heavy selective fading conditions. Y. Jestin, in Comprehensive Renewable Energy, 2012. 7). To further increase their performance, a wider bandgap PV structure such as indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) has been integrated in … GaAs/Ge cells with an area of more than 36 cm2 with median BOL efficiencies of 18 to 19% were developed, with superior radiation resistance (EOL efficiency, 14%) and less fall-off in output when operated at elevated temperatures. The results obtained hold a promise for high-efficiency monolithic cascade cells on Si substrates, costing less than those on Ge substrates. Once in the body, gallium arsenide releases a small amount of its arsenic, which behaves as inorganic arsenic at the sites where it is distributed. As can be seen in Figure 6, each type of semiconductor has a characteristic band gap energy leading to efficient light absorption in a specific wavelength range. Broad-contact semiconductor injection laser mounted on a heat sink with a wire contact. 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