Books The next chapter in the history of the monument came with the Greek Revolution (1821-1832), which resulted in the creation of the modern Greek state. Throughout the city's history Athens was involved in numerous wars, including conflicts with the Persians and other Greeks, but it was also a great center of learning. "Athens." [26] From the early 17th century, Athens came under the jurisdiction of the Kizlar Agha, the chief black eunuch of the Sultans' harem. As of May 2019, the population of Athens is about 3 million people. It’s believed the first Ancient Greek civilisations were formed nearly 4,000 years ago (approximately 1600 BC) by the mighty Mycenaeansof Crete (a Greek Island). Acropolis: amazing history facts - See 35,623 traveler reviews, 34,090 candid photos, and great deals for Athens, Greece, at Tripadvisor. (2011, April 28). After the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) Rome asserted its hegemony over Magna Grecia and became increasingly involved in Greece and the Balkans peninsula. Henceforth it would be leased as a malikhane, a form of tax farming where the owner bought the proceeds of the city for a fixed sum, and enjoyed them for life. Athens experienced its second period of explosive growth following the disastrous war with Turkey in 1921, when more than a million Greek refugees from Asia Minor were resettled in Greece. As the empire became increasingly anti-pagan, Athens became a provincial town and experienced fluctuating fortunes. According to legend, Athens was formerly ruled by kings, a situation which may have continued up until the 9th century BC. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. [24] In the great dispute over Byzantine Iconoclasm, Athens is commonly held to have supported the iconophile position, chiefly due to the role played by Empress Irene of Athens in the ending of the first period of Iconoclasm at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Athens. Each state had its own laws, government and money but they shared the same language and religion.The two most important city states were Athens and Sparta.We know much about Athens because it produced many writers and artists, whose work has survived to this day. By the mid-4th century BC, however, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs. We all know that Athens is an ancient city packed with beyond interesting ancient history. Under the Burgundian dukes, a bell tower was added to the Parthenon, known as the Frankish Tower. Athens thus came under Roman rule. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. Facts about Ancient Athens 7: education. Throughout the city’s history Athens was involved in numerous wars, including conflicts with the Persians and other Greeks, but it was also a great centre of learning. It lies on a hill above the city of Athens and houses remains of several ancient buildings and monuments of great historical and cultural significance – the most famous among them is the Parthenon. The first was the ekklesia, or Assembly, the sovereign governing body of Athens. [1] The origin myth explaining how Athens acquired this name through the legendary contest between Poseidon and Athena was described by Herodotus,[2] Apollodorus,[3] Ovid, Plutarch,[4] Pausanias and others. The wealthy aristocrats held control of both the land and the Greek government and, in time, poorer land owners became enslaved (or nearly so) through debt to the more wealthy. Despite the skepticism of many observers, the games were a great success and brought renewed international prestige (and tourism revenue) to Athens. Interesting Facts about Athens 1. Following a period of sharp decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent and self-governing Greek state. Here are 12 facts about the Acropolis of Athens. After the Roman–Seleucid War (192–188), that ended with the Peace of Apamea, and the Third Macedonian War (171–168), after which Macedonian territory was divided into four client republics, Macedonia was formally annexed to the Roman Republic after the Fourth Macedonian War (150–148). Here are some facts about Ancient Athens. Athens was occupied by the Germans during World War II and experienced terrible privations during the later years of the war. The phyle each elected fifty members to the Boule, a council which governed Athens on a day-to-day basis. [23], Athens produced some notable intellectuals during this era, such as Demetrius Chalcondyles (1424–1511), who became a celebrated Renaissance teacher of Greek and of Platonic philosophy in Italy. In the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Philip II's armies defeated an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes, forcing them into a confederation and effectively limiting Athenian independence. Named after Athena Athens is named after the Greek goddess Athena. The resentment felt by other cities at the hegemony of Athens led to the Peloponnesian War, which began in 431 BC and pitted Athens and its increasingly rebellious overseas empire against a coalition of land-based states led by Sparta. Athena created the olive tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. The city remained an important center of learning, especially of Neoplatonism—with notable pupils including Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil of Caesarea and emperor Julian (r. 355–363)—and consequently a center of paganism. 120,000 people lived in the state of Athens in the 5th century BC. Facts about Ancient Athens present the ideas of the ancient times of the Greek people. [31] His early tenure also saw two large Albanian raids into Attica, as a response to which he ordered the construction of a new city wall, the "Wall of Haseki", which was partly constructed with material taken from ancient monuments. By 1412 BC, the settlement had become an important center of the Mycenaean civilization and the Acropolis was the site of a major Mycenaean fortress whose remains can be recognised from sections of the characteristic Cyclopean walls. Ancient History Encyclopedia. But only the upper classes could hold political office. The beginning of the 19th century was a dark page in the history of the Parthenon and other Greek monuments. Its port, the Piraeus, was home to Greece’s largest fleet of ships. Delos is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Evidence for this has come from pottery finds on and around the Acropolis but particularly from a group of about 20 shallow wells, or pits, on the northwest slope of … This period is the peak in the history of Athens. During the early Middle Ages, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades (12th and 13th centuries), benefiting from Italian trade. [31] The climate was healthy, but the city relied chiefly on pasture—practiced by the Arvanites of Attica—rather than agriculture. From the Acropolis to the Olympic Games, Athens sure has a story to tell! One of the darkest and most turbulent moments in the modern history of Athens occurred in December 2008. [31] In 1759 the new pasha, a native Muslim, destroyed one of the pillars of the Temple of Olympian Zeus to provide material for a fifth mosque for the city—an illegal act, as the temple was considered the Sultan's property. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. The empire and its wealth gone, the walls destroyed, only its reputation as a great seat of learning, Greek philosophy and culture prevented the sack of the city and the enslavement of the populace. IT’S THE MOST FAMOUS OF MANY ACROPOLEIS. [16] Athens then took the war to Asia Minor. Politically, Solon divided the Athenians into four classes, based on their wealth and their ability to perform military service. The history of Athens is as impressive as they come, at one time boasting genius thinkers and unrivalled prowess in the arts. The leading statesman of the mid-fifth century BC was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments of classical Athens. The city had originally been granted by Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–1617) to Basilica, one of his favourite concubines, who hailed from the city, in response of complaints of maladministration by the local governors. After the Achaean League was itself defeated and dissolved by the Romans in the Achaean War in 146, during which the Battle of Corinth resulted in the looting and destruction of the city by Lucius Mummius Achaicus and Greece divided into the Roman provinces of Macedonia and Achaea. Two other major religious sites, the Temple of Hephaestus (which is still largely intact) and the Temple of Olympian Zeus or Olympeion (once the largest temple in mainland Greece but now in ruins) also lay within the city walls. Athens Facts For Kids – Ancient Greek History There were many important city-states in Ancient Greece, but Athens was perhaps the most important and the most powerful. The Empire became Christianized, and the use of Latin declined in favour of exclusive use of Greek; in the Roman imperial period, both languages were been used. We will also learn some interesting facts about these ancient Greeks and their important contributions to world history. In 88–85 BC, most Athenian buildings, both houses and fortifications, were leveled by the Roman general Sulla (138 BC – 78 BC) after the Siege of Athens and Piraeus, although many civic buildings and monuments were left intact. In 1458 the Ottomans conquered Athens and transformed the Parthenon into a mosque with a minaret. Athens was named after the Greek goddess of wisdom, Athena. In 403 BC, however, democracy was restored by Thrasybulus and an amnesty was declared. 10 facts about Athens 10 things you never knew about the Greek capital Gallery. Many of Classical civilization’s intellectual and artistic ideas originated there, and the city is generally considered to be the birthplace of Western civilization. Among the rolling red clay hills of North Georgia, a city and a university grew into a center of culture and wealth, nurturing individuals and ideas that have commanded national attention. 205-246, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, "Roman aqueducts: Hadrian's Athens (Greece)", "Eastern Concubines, Western Mistresses: Prévost's, "and (Dontas, The Acropolis and its Museum, 16)", "The Ghost of Athens in Byzantine and Ottoman Times", American School of Classical Studies at Athens, A history of Athens from prehistoric to contemporary times, Remains of the Acharnian Road, Acharnian Gate and Cemetery Site, House of Saint Philothei/Benizelos-Palaiologos mansion, Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Athens&oldid=999279837, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 11:01. That time, with the initiative … Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Delos is a Greek island in the Cyclades archipelago which was both an influential political force and, with its sanctuary to the god Apollo, an important religious centre in the Archaic and Classical periods. The Eridanus (Ηριδανός) river flowed through the city. Athens has been inhabited from Neolithic times, possibly from the end of the fourth millennium BC, or over 5,000 years. Supported by the city's aristocratic families, and his relationship with the Sultan's sister, who was his lover, he extorted large sums from the populace, and seized much property from them. The first history of Athens was recorded around 3,400 years ago making it Europe's oldest capital and one of the... 2. The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) between the Roman Republic and the Kingdom of Macedon ended with the Treaty of Phoenice. The new system laid the foundations for what eventually became Athenian democracy, but in the short-term it failed to quell class conflict and after twenty years of unrest the popular party, led by Peisistratus, seized power (in 541 BC). Ancient Athens spanned several thousand years, from about 6,000 BC to about 322 BC. In 1896 the city hosted the 1896 Summer Olympics. He adopted the Greek spelling of his name, King Othon, as well as Greek national dress, and made it one of his first tasks as king to conduct a detailed archaeological and topographical survey of Athens, his new capital. 120,000 people lived in the state of Athens in the 5th century BC. The city covers a total area of 412 square kilometers (159 square miles). The agora or marketplace, which had been deserted since late antiquity, began to be built over, and soon the town became an important centre for the production of soaps and dyes. After World War II the city began to grow again as people migrated from the villages and islands to find work. Even so, under Pericles, Athens entered its golden age and great thinkers, writers, and artists flourished in the city. Sally Ashley-Cound, 30 August, 2013. It is also the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, political science, Western literature, historiography, major mathematical principles, and Western theories of tragedy and comedy. Nevertheless, it was only thanks to the intervention of Ismail Agha that the city was spared a massacre as reprisals, and was forced to pay an indemnity instead. Records show the city’s origins go back to around 3,400 years ago, also making it one of the oldest cities in the world. Athens-Clarke County has a rich history that dates back to the very beginnings of the United States. One of its western pediments was removed, causing even more damage to the structure. The Fighting Bunch: The Battle of Athens and How World War II Veterans... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. She was the goddess of wisdom, war, and civilization and the patron of the city of Athens. After the Persian Wars (490-479 BC), Ancient Athens developed as the leading city-state in Greece. Occupying a small but fertile strip of land, the city of Athens would soon prosper into one of the greatest cities of the Ancient World. [31], This peaceful situation was interrupted in 1752–1753, when the execution of the previous Kizlar Agha resulted in the dispatch of a new pasha, Sari Muselimi. The 5th century BC is known as the Classical Century or the Golden Age of Pericles, the man who dominated on the political scene of Athens … [34] In the 17th century, Athenian-born Leonardos Philaras (c. 1595–1673),[35] was a Greek scholar, politician, diplomat, advisor and the Duke of Parma's ambassador to the French court,[36] spending much of his career trying to persuade western European intellectuals to support Greek independence.[37][38]. The origins of Athens date back to 3000BC, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. City after Athena Athens is one of the city hosted a French and an English consul Event in under! To find work 1204 until 1458, Athens was twice captured and sacked by conquerors. 2013, many of whom visited Athens for its ancient past rather than its... image:1205... People as a result, Athens sure has a story to tell it on sees! Their ability to perform military service Roman Republic and the Ottomans under the leadership! 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