The members of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest are radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Visible light and other types of electromagnetic radiation are usually described as waves. For example, sound is a form of mechanical energy. The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum range from 106 to10-16 meters (m) and the frequencies range from 102 to 1024 hertz (Hz). Sometimes, however, electromagnetic radiation seems to behave like discrete, or separate, particles rather than waves. This question about the nature of electromagnetic radiation was debated by scientists for more than two centuries, starting in the 1600s. 3.6 The Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Energy Learning Objectives Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. • Identify concepts regarding the electromagnetic spectrum important for the radiographer. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. They all have the same velocity—the speed of light—and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. Key Features of the Photoelectric Effect infrared light In this theory he explained that all electromagnetic radiation is very similar in that it has no mass, carries energy in waves as electric and magnetic disturbances in space, and travels at the speed of light (Figure 3-1). Offer ending soon! In phenomenon like reflection, refraction and diffraction it shows wave nature and in phenomenon like photoelectric effects, it shows particle nature. Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. The ranges of energy, frequency, and wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum are continuous—that is, one constituent blends into the next (Figure 3-2). Electromagnetic radiation can be defined as a form of energy that is produced by the movement of electrically charged particles traveling through a matter or vacuum or by oscillating magnetic and electric disturbance. This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. This property is explained in this chapter. Conceptually we can talk about electromagnetic radiation based on its wave characteristics of velocity, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. One difference between the “ends” of the spectrum is that only high-energy radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) has the ability to ionize matter. In fact, energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation are related mathematically. Related All of the members of the electromagnetic spectrum have the same velocity (the speed of light or 3 × 108 m/s) and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. In this theory he explained that all. Only gold members can continue reading. Planck theorized that electromagnetic radiation can only exist as “packets” of energy, later called photons. Applying Einstein's special theory of relativity, the relationship between energy (E) and momentum (p) of a particle is E = [ (pc) 2 + (mc 2) 2] (1/2) where m is the rest mass of the particle and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum. Based on Einstein’s light quantum hypothesis, the duality of the photon was confirmed quantum-mechanical experiments and examination. Wavelength and frequency are discussed shortly. DE Broglie, in his PhD thesis, proposed that if wave (light) has particle (quantum) nature, on the basis of natural symmetry, a particle must have the wave associated with it. The S.I. Electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of 3.0 × 10 8 m/s, which is the speed of light (denoted by c ). Explain wave-particle duality as it applies to the electromagnetic spectrum. Particulate Radiation that electromagnetic radiation can only exist as “packets” of energy, later called, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation. the number of waves that pass by a fixed point during a given amount of time FQ: In what ways do electrons act as particles and waves? Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic and Particulate Radiation Wave Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: James Maxwell (1870) was the first to give a comprehensive explanation about the interaction between the charged bodies and the behavior of electrical and magnetic fields on the macroscopic level. Wave-particle duality is a concept in quantum mechanics. Wavelength Students may wonder why it is necessary for the radiographer to understand the entire spectrum of radiation. radiowaves EM radiation can exhibit interference patterns. electromagnetic spectrum radioactivity Both ends of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in medical imaging. Very soon, it was experimentally confirmed by Davisson and Germer that the electron shows the diffraction pattern and therefore has the wave associated with it. This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. With electromagnetic radiation, it is the energy itself that is vibrating as a combination of electric and magnetic fields; it is pure energy. Chemistry Journal 2.2 Electromagnetic Radiation Driving Question: How does the nature of particles, waves, and energy explain phenomena such as lightning? electromagnetic radiation v = particle speed. wavelength Dismiss, 01.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 1.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 01.06 The International System of Units (SI Units), 01.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 1.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 01.09 Arithmetic Operations using Scientific Notation, 1.09 Arithmetic Operations Using Scientific Notation, 01.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 1.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 01.17 Atomic Mass and Average Atomic Mass, 02.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 2.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 02.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: Numericals, 2.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation - Numericals, 02.24 Evidence for the quantized Electronic Energy Levels: Atomic Spectra, 2.24 Evidence for the Quantized Electronic Energy Levels - Atomic Spectra, 02.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 2.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 02.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – I, 2.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - I, 02.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – II, 2.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - II, 02.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter: Numericals, 2.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter - Numerical, 02.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 2.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 02.36 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: Numericals, 2.36 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle - Numerical, 02.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom: Introduction, 2.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom - Introduction, 02.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 2.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 02.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 2.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 03 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, 03.01 Why do we need to classify elements, 03.02 Genesis of Periodic classification – I, 3.02 Genesis of Periodic Classification - I, 03.03 Genesis of Periodic classification – II, 3.03 Genesis of Periodic Classification - II, 03.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 3.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 03.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 3.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 03.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – I, 3.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - I, 03.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – II, 3.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - II, 03.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-block – I, 3.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - s-block - I, 03.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: p-blocks – II, 3.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - p-blocks - II, 03.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: Exceptions in periodic table – III, 3.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - Exceptions in Periodic Table - III, 03.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: d-block – IV, 3.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - d-block - IV, 03.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: f-block – V, 3.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - f-block - V, 03.18 Factors affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 3.18 Factors Affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 03.20 Trends in Ionization Enthalpy – II, 04 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, 04.01 Kossel-Lewis approach to Chemical Bonding, 4.01 Kössel-Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding, 04.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 4.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 04.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 4.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 04.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 4.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 04.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 4.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 04.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 4.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 04.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 4.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 04.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behavior, 4.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour, Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - Test, 05.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces And Hydrogen Bond, 5.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bond, 05.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 5.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 05.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 5.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 05.08 The Gas Laws : Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 5.08 The Gas Laws - Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 05.10 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure – I, 05.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 5.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 05.13 Pressure -Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 5.13 Pressure - Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 06.02 Internal Energy as a State Function – I, 6.02 Internal Energy as a State Function - I, 06.03 Internal Energy as a State Function – II, 6.03 Internal Energy as a State Function - II, 06.06 Extensive and Intensive properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 6.06 Extensive and Intensive Properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 06.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH : Calorimetry, 6.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH - Calorimetry, 06.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – I, 6.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction - I, 06.09 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – II, 6.09 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - II, 06.10 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – III, 6.10 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - III. In 1905, Einstein applied Planck's quantum theory of light to account for the extraordinary features of the photoelectric effect. Unlike mechanical energy, which requires an object or matter to act through, electromagnetic energy can exist apart from matter and can travel through a vacuum. But, at the beginning of the 20th century, scientists had begun to question the w… Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron; 2.1.3. All of the members of the electromagnetic spectrum have the same velocity (the speed of light or 3 × 108 m/s) and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. \n Particle/wave nature of electromagnetic radiation \n \n • Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. • Describe the nature of the electromagnetic spectrum. The energy is measured in electron volts (eV). In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. particulate radiation microwaves This chapter introduces the nature of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. The Rest of the Spectrum Identify concepts regarding the electromagnetic spectrum important for the radiographer. While investigating the scattering of X-rays, he observed that such rays lose some of their energy in the scattering process and emerge with slightly decreased frequency. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. FIGURE 3-1 Electromagnetic Radiation.Electromagnetic radiation is energy traveling at the speed of light in waves as an electric and magnetic disturbance in space. Log In or Register to continue Conceptually we can talk about electromagnetic radiation based on its wave characteristics of … The S.I. • Differentiate between electromagnetic and particulate radiation. visible light In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. 2.0.Introduction; 2.1. The American physicist Arthur Holly Compton explained (1922; published 1923) the wavelength increase by considering X-rays as composed of discrete pulses, or quanta, of electromagnetic energy. The American chemist Gilbert Lewis later coined the term photon for light quanta. Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation has a wave-particle nature, that the energy of a quantum, or photon, depends on the frequency of the radiation, and that the energy of the photon is given by the formula Ephoton=hv. • Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum range from 106 to10-16 meters (m) and the frequencies range from 102 to 1024 hertz (Hz). Electromagnetic Radiation It is a form of energy that can propagate in vacuum or material medium and shows both wave like and particle like properties. The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. Differentiate between x-rays and gamma rays and the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wave-particle duality of photons and electromagnetic radiation is enshrined in an equation first proposed by the German physicist Max Planck (1858 to 1947). Electromagnetic radiation exhibits properties of a wave or a particle depending on its energy and in some cases its environment. Class 11: Chemistry: Structure of Atom-I: Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: Planck’s quantum Theory This phenomenon is called, Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging. Discovery of Electron; 2.1.2. Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons. Outline Difference between Electromagnetic and Mechanical Energy • Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. • Describe the nature of particulate radiation. Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, UV-rays, X-rays, gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. Thus, De-Broglie equation equals the wavelength of em radiation of which the photon is a quantum of energy and momentum. The magnetic and the electric fields come at 90° to each other and the combined waves move perpendicular to both electric and magnetic oscillating fields occurring the disturbance. He suggested that when electrically charged particles move with an acceleration alternating electrical and magnetic fields are produced and transmitted. As previously stated, the velocity for all electromagnetic radiation is the same: 3 × 108 m/s. 06.11 Hess’s Law and Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions. The wavelength (i.e. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest are radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. The energy of electromagnetic radiation can be calculated by the following formula: In this formula, E is energy, h is Planck’s constant (equal to 4.15 × 10-15 eV-sec), and f is the frequency of the photon. The amplitude refers to the maximum height of a wave. The energy of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 10-12 to 1010 eV. Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that originates from the atom. 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