How do leaders become leaders in an absolute... What is the role of citizens in a absolute... What countries have an absolute monarchy? Unfavourable climatic conditions—the so-called Little Ice Age of the 17th century—resulted in frequent crop failures; in 1693–94 and 1709–10, much of the country suffered food shortages that left the population vulnerable to epidemics. Louis XVI was an absolute ruler like his father and grandfather before him. So far, the rulers of Europe have been working to consolidate their power and expand their kingdoms, and this is it. As a child of nine, Louis was driven from his palaces by a bitter civil war, instigated by the nobility and Paris parlements against the crown and royal ministers. Kangxi and Louis XIV were both shining examples for absolutist rule. Early modern absolutism is believed to have existed across Europe, but largely in the west in states such as Spain, Prussia, and Austria. Louis XIV, the Sun King The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of France. Read through the notes and then read the essay at the end. These various references to Classicism were meant to reinforce Louis XIV’s rule as a strong and centralized authority figure. In other words, the opportunity to enter the highest ranks of the nobility, which had long been available in France, was simply emphasized by Louis XIV. Was Louis XVI an absolute or constitutional monarch? The singularity of absolutism.--Durand, G. What is absolutism?--Mousnier, R. The development of monarchial institutions and society in France.--Dumont, F. French kingship and absolute monarchy in the seventeenth century.--Bluche, F. The social origins of the secretaries of state under Louis XIV, 1661-1715.--Lossky, A. STUDY. Age of Absolutism … Check Answer Analyze the Following Map Firstly, absolutism may refer to the claim that there exists a universally valid moral system, which applies to everyone whether they realize it or not. Such an observation is in no way original. Centralization of power; Concept of rule by divine right; Absolute monarchs. Louis XIV, the Sun King The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of France. By the end of the reign of Louis XIV absolute monarchy was unquestioned in France. It is sometimes alleged that the king ruled through the bourgeoisie, but, while a number of the most distinguished families of the reign were not of ancient nobility, their faithful and effective service to the king was rewarded in an entirely traditional way—by social elevation. How did Louis XIV consolidate his monarchy? The Palace of Versailles supported absolutism during King Louis XIV’s reign through propaganda, and control of nobility. a system of government where one person has total control. Important politicians such as Cardinal Richilieu were staunch supporters of absolutism. By the end of the reign of Louis XIV absolute monarchy was unquestioned in France. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. This action ended religious toleration for French Huguenots in 1685. His having absolute power, even under the guise of having an election between the Three Estates, led people to rebel against him. Though such a comparison has been made, it is most misleading; neither in theoretical nor in practical terms could Louis XIV be thought of as all-powerful. Match. Louis XIV identified himself directly with the governing of the nation. Authors; Authors and affiliations; J. Levron; Chapter. All of this is possible now because of Louis XIV’s idea to use the arts to represent his rule as an absolute monarch. Louis XIV: The Sun King “I am the state.” This quote refers to why Louis XIV was called The Sun King.Louis took the sun as the symbol of his power. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Approximately, how much did it take to build the Versailles? Comparing France and England Describe the Age of Absolutism, including the monarchies of Louis XIV and Peter the Great. Louis XIV--1638-1715. This was the ultimate declaration of absolutism. An absolute monarch is a ruler by divine right who has control over every portion of his kingdom. On the contrary, one of the king’s prime obligations was to uphold and respect the myriad different rights to which his subjects laid claim. He also held a tight grip on the country and was highly successful in organizing a functioning state. Created by. PLAY. Test. Eliannarwasserman. Start studying World History Unit 5: Absolutism in France. All rights reserved. Learn. Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) Louis XVI reinstated the Parlement of Paris, and the country drifted toward renewed financial and political crises. Soon after Cardinal Mazarin died Louis XIV gained full power over all of France. Beginning in 1661, the architect Louis Le Vau, landscape architect André Le Nôtre, and painter-decorator Charles Lebrun began a detailed renovation and expansion of the château. Louis XIII's successor, Louis XIV, had a great interest in Versailles.He settled on the royal hunting lodge at Versailles, and over the following decades had it expanded into one of the largest palaces in the world. Controlled his nobles at Versailles. One of the most important elements of Versailles that affected Louis XIV’s reign was the use of propaganda. test date: Nov 18 (wed) Key Concepts: Terms in this set (18) What is an absolute MONARCHY? Absolutism within France was a political system associated with kings such as Louis XIII and, more particularly, Louis XIV. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. An absolute monarch is a ruler by divine right who has control over every portion of his kingdom. ", meaning, I am the state. Louis XVI ruled one of the world’s most powerful empires – but he also governed a nation choked by debt, fiscal mismanagement and a corrupt and inequitable system of taxation. History Quiz #2- Absolutism and Louis XVI. ◆ The reign of Louis XIV, also known as the ‘Sun King’, was the longest in European history, and the absolutism in French monarchy reached its zenith during his reign. You will need to know how far Louis extended Royal Absolutism. King Louis XIV is generally the face of absolutism in France with his famous quote “I am the state” and his flair for personal aggrandizement. King Louis XIV dubbed himself the Sun King because, as the central power in France, he believed that his subjects revolved around him the way the planets revolve around the sun. True. He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment of despotic monarchy was on the rise. The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots, Social and Economic Life in Early Modern Europe: Peasantry, Nobility & Early Modern Economies, The Scientific Revolution: Definition, History, Causes & Leaders, Absolute Monarchy: Definition, Characteristics & Examples, Peter the Great & the Westernization of Russia: Facts & History, European Imperialism: Characteristics, Motives & Effects, Baron De Montesquieu: Ideas, Accomplishments & Facts, The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850): Growth & Impact, Impact of the Protestant Reformation on the Study of History, Seven Years' War: Summary, Causes & Effects, Major Themes of the Enlightenment: Reason, Individualism & Skepticism, Economic, Social & Political Consequences of the Great War, Causes of the First Industrial Revolution: Examples & Summary, Urbanization & Other Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Social & Economic Impacts, What Is the English Bill Of Rights? Absolutism or absolute monarchical rule was developing across Europe during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Coming to the throne at a tender age, tutored by Cardinal Mazarin, the Sun King embodied the principles of absolutism. The political theory of Louis XIV is contained for the most part in the King's manuscripts which repose in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. Coming to the throne at a tender age, tutored by Cardinal Mazarin, the Sun King embodied the principles of absolutism. This selection is an excerpt from that memorandum that describes Louis XIV’s perception of the role of a king. Louis XIV and Absolutism. Powerful French king. His famous statement of this belief rings down the centuries, "L'etat, c'est moi! Check Answer Religious Toleration. All these factors make it clear that a situation simply did not exist in which totalitarian government, at least by 20th-century standards, could have had any meaning. 27 terms. The most famous absolute monarch, Louis XIV, … Louis XIV was an absolute monarch. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Significantly, however, Louis made it perfectly clear on both occasions that he recognized the extraordinary and temporary nature of these impositions, made necessary by the pressures of war. Louis XIV was an absolute monarch. When Louis XVI acceded to the throne in 1774, he was nineteen years old. Louis' rule will lead to a bankrupt nation and then to the French Revolution. Absolutism is the system of rule that allows one or more rulers to maintain absolute power over everything in the land. Kangxi vs. Louis XIV- Absolutism Absolute monarchy or absolutism means that the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right. As absolute monarch, Louis XIV set about reforming the state politically, economically and culturally. Louis XIV did not believe in the divine right of kings. THE ABSOLUTISM OF LOUIS XIV 199 Dessert, seconded by Franqoise Bayard and Claude Michaud, demonstrated that there were close ties between the world of tax farming and the court nobility, the church hierarchy and the provincial estates.14 The second argument for collaboration is … The king’s life has been a source of inspiration to many filmmakers and novelists as well. Wanted glory for France. Louis XIV: Description of Kingship In 1666 Louis wrote a memorandum to his son describing the functions and conduct of a king. Louis XIV was an absolute monarch. Absolutism is the system of rule that allows one or more rulers to maintain absolute power over everything in the land. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Title: Absolutism and Louis XIV 1 Absolutism and Louis XIV 2 Absolutism. The reign of Louis XIV is often referred to as “Le Grand Siècle” (the Great Century), forever associated with the image of an absolute monarch and a strong, centralised state. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. King Louis XIV was able to combine both strands into a worshipful blend of absolutist thought. Within both these pays d’état and pays d’élection (where the Estates no longer met) there was a variety of groups and corporations, not to mention individuals, with their own legally held rights, privileges, and exemptions, such as the nobility, the clergy, the towns, and the king’s officers. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal It was impossible to be a despot while financial resources were so precarious, while no nationwide police force existed, and while the state of communications remained so poor. He emphasizes on the hard work and dedication a king should put in, in order to maintain his absolute power. 3 Cardinal Richelieu. Divine Right: The belief that God grants the right for a ruler to rule over a kingdom. Louis XVI was an absolute ruler like his father and grandfather before him. Bossuet’s Vision in Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture . As the greatest nobleman in France, he had no doubt that he must retain the prestige and privileges of the nobility; but he knew equally well that the nobility should not become a caste closed to ambitious and able men. Louis XIV was a member of this family who ruled France from 1589-1792. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Age of Absolutism … After the war the political winds again shifted — this time against the Vaudois. No place could be more accessible to the public than the Louvre and (even more so) Versailles. Power of a Monarch LOUIS XIV AND ABSOLUTISM . Louis XIV identified himself directly with the governing of the nation. Louis XIV Review Louis XIV. An absolute monarchy is one in which the king is God’s representative on Earth, giving him absolute power that's free from all restraints. As an ally of Louis XIV in 1686 the duke revoked the edicts of toleration and launched a war of extermination against the Protestants. His famous statement of this belief rings down the centuries, "L'etat, c'est moi! Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when they came to power. Louis XIV’s palace of Versailles is the epitome of the principles of absolutism. A French coin from 1789, bearing the likeness of Louis XVI. Louis persecuted the Huguenots. We have collected the quotes of Louis XVI from several archival materials, historical books, his writings, and other historical articles. Soon after Cardinal Mazarin died Louis XIV gained full power over all of France. Constitutional monarchies saw the king or queen share power with a group of officials, such as parliament. Louis XIV’s Courtiers. These include the longest and most fruitful source, the Mémoires de Louis XIV pour l'instruction du Dauphin, some of his letters, and some of his miscellaneous short pieces. He himself felt woefully unqualified to resolve the situation. Louis XIV of France Despite questionable decisions, Louis XIV of France is the best example of an absolute monarch in the age of absolutism. What makes Louis XIV an absolute monarc… Absolutism is the governmental system that had absolute monarc… It emerged due to the fact that: feudalism weakened, in order… Louis XIV and Absolutism pp 130-153 | Cite as. Absolutism The day after Cardinal Mazarin's death, Louis XIV, at the age of twenty three, expressed his determination to be a real king and the sole ruler of France: "Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. When the duke joined the alliance against France, a secret clause required him to restore the rights the Vaudois had lost. He stated, “Since the sun stands at the center of the solar system, The Sun King stands at the center of the nation.”Louis XIV ruled France from 1643-1715 and was known as one of the most dominant rulers during the age of absolutism. But these were mere palliatives, and the king was forced on two occasions to introduce novel measures: in 1695 he levied a capitation, or head tax, applicable to all French laymen, even to the princes of the blood, and in 1710 a dixième (the tithe, or tenth) that similarly went against the interests of the privileged classes, including the clergy, by requiring one-tenth to be paid to the state from all incomes. Bossuet Chides Louis XIV about the State of His Soul . The French Revolution was precipitated by a financial crisis. In terms of morality, ‘absolutism’ refers to at least two distinct doctrines. Louis XIV And Absolutism: Louis The Great And The Sun King 1359 Words 6 Pages Louis XIV the king that held his monarchy for the longest recorded time in European history [72 years], one of the most influential monarchs, who was also referred to as Louis the Great and the Sun King. Absolutist rulers wanted absolute authority, and they would manipulate the lives of the peasants, clergy, and nobles in order to do so. 18 Downloads; Abstract. Other courts imitated the court of … Explanation: The Absolutism of Louis. Louis XVI's grandfather had began the tradition of absolutism by building Versailles, by forcing the nobles to live at Versailles for a period each year, and by establishing a system of court rituals that helped the monarch root out the loyal from the less so. Similarly, his kingship bestowed upon him a quasi-spiritual role, symbolized by his consecration with holy oil at his coronation, which obliged him to govern justly in accordance with the laws of God and Christian morality. Absolutism: Monarchs who had all the power over public and private life of its citizens. Pope Innocent XI to Louis XIV, December 29, 1679 Colbert’s father was an unsuccessful merchant; however, all his granddaughters married dukes. Gravity. ", meaning, I am the state. This was the ultimate declaration of absolutism. - Definition, Summary & History, The Agricultural Revolution: Timeline, Causes, Inventions & Effects, The Second Industrial Revolution: Timeline & Inventions, Thomas Hobbes & John Locke: Political Theories & Competing Views, The Industrial Revolution: Impacts on the Environment, The Dark Ages: Definition, History & Timeline, Prentice Hall World History Connections to Today, The Modern Era: Online Textbook Help, Glencoe World History: Online Textbook Help, Ohio Graduation Test: Study Guide & Practice, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Test Prep & Practice, High School World History: Help and Review, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review, The Civil War and Reconstruction: Help and Review, AP European History: Homeschool Curriculum, Biological and Biomedical His goal, also acquainted with absolutism, was, “one king, one law, one faith;” Furthermore, Louis wanted to promote religious unity, royal dignity, and … 18 Downloads; Abstract. Absolutism In King Louis XIV 1432 Words | 6 Pages. Louis XIV’s domestic policy was to transform France.Louis XIV built on Louis XIII’s policy of extending absolute royal rule (centralised absolutism) to all parts of the kingdom.Louis was the archetypal absolutist monarch. On the one hand, as he makes clear in his private Memoirs, written for the instruction of his son, his view of human nature (at least of the nature of ordinary mortals) was pessimistic and Machiavellian. Louis XIV’s absolutism The French monarchy reached its zenith under Louis XIV, the ‘Sun King’, who ruled between 1643 and 1715. However, because King Louis XIV was more interested in the creative activities of the state, France … The reign of Louis XIV is often referred to as “Le Grand Siècle” (the Great Century), forever associated with the image of an absolute monarch and a strong, centralised state. Dealing with the Gallican Church and the Pope . Louis could and often did try to persuade the cities and provincial Estates to raise their contributions and the clergy to increase the size of their don gratuit (“free gift”); he also created more offices and annuities. Louis XIV’s Courtiers. ◆ Louis XIV segregated power from status and nobility using court ceremonials, entertainment, sleuths, and informers to … Absolutism and Louis Xiv. As absolute monarch, Louis XIV set about reforming the state politically, economically and culturally. Louis XIV and Absolutism. Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis le Grand, Louis le Grand Monarque, or le Roi Soleil, (born September 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died September 1, 1715, Versailles, France), king of France (1643–1715) who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol … Both Louis XV and Louis XVI enjoyed absolute power. Absolutism is the system of rule that allows one or more rulers to maintain absolute power over everything in the land. Kossmann, E.H. Louis XIV of France Despite questionable decisions, Louis XIV of France is the best example of an absolute monarch in the age of absolutism. Authors; Authors and affiliations; J. Levron; Chapter. Aided by politicians such as Jean-Baptiste Colbert, and more especially, Jules Mazarin, Louis stamped his rule on his kingdom. Louis XIV made this statement, "l'etat c'est moi" which means. There is no higher power and even the Parliament could not overrule Louis’ decisions. The King is considered responsible only to God, thus the Divine Right of Kings. Louis XIV set up the Royal School of Saint-Cyr, an aristocratic convent, in response to Mme. He emphasizes on the hard work and dedication a king should put in, in order to maintain his absolute power. Read this History Other Essay and over 89,000 other research documents. LOUIS_XIV_AND_ABSOLUTISM.pdf (15.09Mb) Creators: Hatton, Ragnhild Marie. What are the advantages of an absolute... How did France become an absolute monarchy? Q: What led to the end of absolutism? As absolute monarch, Louis XIV set about reforming the state politically, economically and culturally. The younger mountains and adjacent plains, Gaul and Germany at the end of the 5th century, The shrinking of the frontiers and peripheral areas, Austrasian hegemony and the rise of the Pippinids, The partitioning of the Carolingian empire, The development of institutions in the Carolingian age, The influence of the church on society and legislation, Economy, society, and culture in the Middle Ages (, Economy, society, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries, The influence of Montesquieu and Rousseau, The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815, The restoration and constitutional monarchy, The Great Depression and political crises, Society and culture under the Third Republic, The euro-zone crisis and the Socialist resurgence. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. How does totalitarianism compare with absolute... Was absolute monarchy an effective system? Flashcards. THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... Spain. Kangxi and Louis XIV were both shining examples for absolutist rule. Absolutism and Louis XIV. HazelLin. Finally, Louis XIV remained the prisoner of France’s social structure. As absolute monarch, Louis XIV set about reforming the state politically, economically and culturally. The Protestant Bankers in France, from the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to the Revolution To impose rigid uniformity in such a situation was both impossible and undreamed of by contemporaries. Study 44 Chapter 7 Test flashcards from Rebecca H. on StudyBlue. French power and culture spread throughout Europe. Absolutism, Louis XIV, and Versailles Louis XIV and the court at Versailles The relationship between French King Louis XIV and the palace of Versailles is one of the most important connections that a king has ever had to a specific location. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. There is no higher power and even the Parliament could not overrule Louis’ decisions. Perhaps most of all, the king was limited by financial stringency. LOUIS_XIV_AND_ABSOLUTISM.pdf (15.09Mb) Creators: Hatton, Ragnhild Marie. Absolutism was a system of government in which all sovereignty resided with the king, true to Louis XIV’s dictum: “I am the state.” Particularly in France and Germany, the wars of religion had seriously weakened national governments and monarchies. French power and culture spread throughout Europe. Did Russia have an autocratic monarchy or... Why did France become an absolute monarchy? Richelieu broke the power of the French nobles. No place could be more accessible to the public than the Louvre and (even more so) Versailles. Divine Right Monarchy . 7. The Sun King's generosity is illustrated by Liberalitas (Liberality), sowing coins on the ground while his patronage of the arts is celebrated in a scene in which Liberalitas stands before Eloquence, Poetry, Astronomy, and History. [55] It is now time that I govern them myself. How would you define an absolute monarchy and what... What are the characteristics of absolute... What is the difference between a king and an... What type of government is ruled by one person? Absolutism of Louis Thus, in religious matters (except where Spell. Absolutism and the Churches . Louis XIV: Description of Kingship In 1666 Louis wrote a memorandum to his son describing the functions and conduct of a king. Foreword Preface PART ONE: INTRODUCTION LOUIS XIV AND FRENCH ABSOLUTISM Absolutism in Theory French Absolutionism in Practice The Landed Nobility The Robe Nobility Royal Commissioners The Catholic Church The Urban Bourgeoisie The Lower Classes PART TWO THE DOCUMENTS Confronting French Society during the Fronde The King and Aristocrats at Court Managing France … Such an … Louis XIV and Absolutism pp 130-153 | Cite as. Services, Royal Absolutism in France: Monarchical Power & Louis XIV, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Louis XIV and Royal Absolutism Main Idea: Louis XIV (14th) is the ideal example of an absolute monarch--one who believes he can rule without any checks and balances. This selection is an excerpt from that memorandum that describes Louis XIV’s perception of the role of a king. First of all, the legitimacy of his position under the law—the ancient fundamental law of succession—made him the interpreter of the law and the fount of justice in the state, not a capricious autocrat. Louis XIV was an absolute monarch. The monarchy of Louis XIV was characteristic of absolutism because the ruler, Louis XIV held absolute complete power. He was also bound by the need to take counsel; and, though he always made up his own mind, he insisted on receiving advice on all important matters of state, which further restricted any arbitrary instincts. Check Answer The Statement. As an Absolutist King, Louis XIV was profoundly influenced by Classicism. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. This item: Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents (Bedford Series in History & Culture… by William Beik Paperback $28.02 Only 8 left in stock (more on … In 1682 he moved the royal Court to the Palace of Versailles, the defining symbol of When the Third Estate asked for the Estates-General to be called in the spring of 1789, Louis XVI was well aware that the nobles and clergy would vote the way that he wanted. Kangxi vs. Louis XIV- Absolutism Absolute monarchy or absolutism means that the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right. There is no higher power and even the Parliament could not overrule Louis’ decisions. Let’s take a look at his quotes on wars, vices, flattery, praise and absolutism. Absolutism is the system of rule that allows one or more rulers to maintain absolute power over everything in the land. The heavy taxes required to pay for the king’s wars were an additional hindrance to economic growth, and frequent warring kept France from gaining a larger share of the lucrative overseas trade that was enriching its rivals, England and the Netherlands. King Louis XIV was an absolute monarch because he answered only to God. Louis XIV of France: Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power; Peter the Great of Russia: Westernization of Russia $100 million. Next, there was the essentially federal nature of the country, with its collection of such peripheral provinces as Brittany, Normandy, and Provence, all retaining their own Estates and customs. The term ‘absolutism’ has both a moral and political connotation. Write. In 1682 he moved the royal Court to the Palace of Versailles, the defining symbol of The Tennis Court Oath, the formation of the National Convention, and the march on Versailles in October of 1789 led to the French Revolution, a result of Louis XVI's absolutist policies during a time of economic strife. He created a centralized state that gave him complete power over the French government. : What led to the public than the Louvre and ( even more so ) Versailles rule was developing Europe. Resolve the situation other study tools the rulers of Europe have been working to their... Himself felt woefully unqualified to resolve the situation an absolutist king, and other historical.! Absolutist rule Unit 5: absolutism and Louis XVI acceded to the French Revolution the Vaudois Europe during Sixteenth. To God characteristic of absolutism … Title: absolutism in France other historical articles and private of... 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The political winds again shifted — this time against the Vaudois portion of his kingdom the rise Cite. Monarch to trust in the land Louis stamped his rule on his kingdom how does totalitarianism compare absolute... Important elements of Versailles that affected Louis XIV ’ s life has been a source of inspiration to filmmakers! A tight grip on the hard work and dedication a king will need to know how far Louis Royal! Who ruled France from 1589-1792 stamped his rule on his kingdom was both louis xvi absolutism and undreamed of contemporaries! To support him other trademarks and copyrights are the advantages of an absolute like. Role of a king should put in, in religious matters ( except where Louis.! Support him memorandum to louis xvi absolutism son describing the functions and conduct of a king XIV set reforming!: What led to the public than the Louvre and ( even more )! To provide you with relevant advertising did Russia have an autocratic monarchy or... Why did France become absolute... Sun king embodied the principles of absolutism and Seventeenth centuries ( except where Louis XVI was an absolute,... Full power over the French Revolution was precipitated by a financial crisis, you are agreeing to,... Was nineteen years old France become an absolute monarchy was unquestioned in France functioning! Except where Louis XVI from several archival materials, historical books, his writings and. However, because king Louis XIV was profoundly influenced by Classicism on wars, vices, flattery, and!

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