According to the federal Ministry of Religious Affairs, more than 99 percent of the Somali population is Sunni Muslim. , Due to the Somali Civil War, the enforcement of laws pertaining to religion by the various autonomous governments in the region is inconsistent. During the rule of the Marxist government in the country, the activity of all missionaries and church-sponsored schools were shut down. , Of the three orders, the less strict Qaadiriya tariqa is the oldest, and it is the sect to which most Somalis belonged. "The political conditions for local peacemaking: A comparative study of communal conflict resolution in Kenya." Islam is the official state religion of Somalia and the vast majority of the Somali population identifies as Muslim. As there has not been a comprehensive survey, it is unclear to what extent Somali Waaqists exist in the contemporary period.  The Sunni-Shia split within Islam occurred before Islam spread among Somalis, and Sunnis constitute the overwhelming majority of contemporary Somalis.  There was a marked and pronounced difference in prehistoric forms of worship among Low-land Cushitic Horners, and that of the ancient proto-Somali Waaqists. Jubaland in a federal state in the south of Somalia. The country has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world. Most belong to the Sunni branch of Islam and the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence. , There are two theories about when Somalis began adopting Islam. Men may have up to four wives at one time. "Against All Odds: The History of Archaeological Research in Somaliland and Somalia." I live in a semi-agricultural city on the plains of Northern Colorado. A Somali schoolgirl.Somalis constitute the largest ethnic group in Somalia, at approximately 85% of the nation's inhabitants. Islam arrived in Somalia at a very early time, soon after the hijra which refers to Prophet Muhammad journey from Mecca to Medina. The Somali follow the practices associated with Islam. , There is a strong societal pressure to adhere to Sunni traditions. Somalia borders Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti, as well as the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. Article 11 guarantees equal rights and freedom from persecution for all citizens before the law regardless of religion. Somalis frequently use wordplay and humor in everyday communication.  Somali Sufi religious orders (tariqa) – the Qadiriyya, the Ahmadiya and the Salihiyya – in the form of Muslim brotherhoods have played a major role in Somali Islam and the modern era history of Somalia. Galmudug is a federal state in central Somalia. Common Somali is the most widely spoken dialect, but Coastal Somali and Central Somali also are spoken. "Ottoman Efforts to Protect Somalia from European Powers." disorders or psychosocial problems due to distinct cultural and religious conceptualisations of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. The country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean, the longest in African mainland. (2015). For much of the 1st millennium BC and 1st millennium AD, a predominant religion practised by proto-Somalis as well as other Cushites and Horners was Waaqism, although in the post-classical period, various Abrahamic faiths became increasingly prevalent. Almost 100 percent of the Somali population is Sunni Muslim (branch of Islam). Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in the city. Behr, Agnes Wanjiru. They provide Islamic education for children. , Most residents of Somalia are Muslims, of which some sources state that Sunnism is the strand practised by 90% of the population, whereof in particular the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence is practiced. "Wagar, fertility and phallic stelae: Cushitic sky-god belief and the site of Saint Aw-Barkhadle, Somaliland." Comparative Political Studies 52.13-14 (2019): 2061-2096. http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/somalia#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2020®ion_name=All%20Countries&restrictions_year=2016, "Middle East Policy Council – Muslim Populations Worldwide", "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Provisional Constitution", https://hiiraan.com/news4/2020/July/179159/scores_killed_in_mass_shooting_in_mogadishu.aspx?utm_source=hiiraan&utm_medium=SomaliNewsUpdateFront, "A Country Study: Somalia from The Library of Congress", pages The Integrated Quranic Schools Pilot Project: The Strategic Partnership for Recovery and Development of Education in Somalia, "Almost expunged: Somalia's Embattled Christians", "The Global Religious Landscape, Religious groups 2010", https://www.somaliaffairs.com/features/islam-modernity-and-somali-youths/, International Religious Freedom Report 2017 Somalia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_in_Somalia&oldid=996210629, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 04:49.  One correspondent has discussed how irreligiosity is an increasing phenomenon among Somalis. Religion, Siad Barre said, was an integral part of the Somali worldview, but it belonged in the private sphere, whereas scientific socialism dealt with material concerns such as poverty. Somalia. The country is prone to recurring droughts, frequent du… The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. The predominant religion in Somalia is Islam. Many of us realized, rather abashedly, that we actually knew very little about t… "MOGADISCIO: TANTI SECOLI FA." Age distribution > Population aged 0-14: Percentage of total population aged 0-14.; Age distribution > Population aged 0-14 > Total: Number of people aged 0-14. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Islamic Civilisation in Eastern Africa: Kampala, Uganda, 15–17 December 2003. Pastoralist communities represent 60 per cent of Somalia’s population. A very small population of about 1,000 individuals, representing only about 0.01% of the entire population of Somalia, practice Christianity. Although the bulk of this sentiment comes from Somalis in the diaspora, there are also many Somalis from their home country, Somalia, who discuss their disbelief in religion, although covertly. Somalia is believed to be the most homogenous country in Africa. Major religion Islam . , Islam entered the region very early on, shortly after the hijra. Its 10.9 million population represents a huge increase from the 3.3 million people in 1975, but civil strife in the 90's increased Somali diaspora and many of the highly educated people left.  Sufism, the mystical dimension of Islam, is also well-established, with many local jama'a (zawiya) or congregations of the various tariiqa or Sufi orders. Our state has the country's largest Somali-American population – 69,000 people. The number of Somali refugees displaced by ongoing conflict continues to rise. In November 2014, the South West State of Somalia was established as a Somali federal state. "Somalia's Judeao-Christian heritage: a preliminary survey." The groups listed below are not included in overall Joshua Project people group counts. Ta’a, Tesema. Africa: Rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione dell’Istituto italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente 51.2 (1996): 263-272. Contemporary Somali views on the ancient religion vary from aversiveness, to a perception that its monotheistic aspects ameliorated conversions to Abrahamic religions over the course of the 1st and 2nd millennium, to an intuition that some Waaqist practises linger within Somali culture in the form of syncretism. Ibadism, Quranism etc.). The 637,657 square km country houses a population of around 14.3 million individuals. The Christian population in the country grew only slightly during the colonial era. , The Ahmadiya has the smallest number of adherents of the three orders. During the rule of the Marxist government in the country, the activity of all missionaries and church-sponsored schools were shut down. There were virtually no Christians in the nation at about 1913. Ethnic Somalis account for about 85% of the country’s population. Northeast African Studies 18.1-2 (2018): 271-310. Looking back, in the year of 1960, Somalia had a population of 2.8 million people. Other non-Somali groups including the Arabs account for the rest of the population.  The provisional constitution requires the president, but not other office holders, to be Muslim. The federal government of Somalia had limited ability to implement its laws beyond greater Mogadishu; most other areas of Somalia were outside its control. Members of other religious groups combined constitute less than 1 percent of the population and include a small Christian community, a small Sufi Muslim community, and an unknown number of Shia Muslims. 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