[1] PlasticsEurope, “Plastics - the Facts 2018,” 2018. General information on PVC is provided here in Chapter 1, followed by introductions on four aspects of PVC; production, characteristics, safety and applications. Polyvinyl chloride, commonly referred to as PVC or Vinyl, is the world’s 3rd most synthesised thermoplastic material. EHC 215: Vinyl Chloride _____ 14 2.2 Physical and chemical properties Some physical properties of VC are given in Table 1. Pure PVC is white in color. PVC is used in these applications because of its low cost and desirable physical and mechanical properties. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become a universal polymer with many applications (e.g., for pipes, floor coverings, cable insulation, roofing sheets, packaging foils, bottles, and medical products) because of its low cost and physical, chemical, and weathering properties. »  Methods to Enhance Properties of PVC A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid PVC (also known as uPVC or RPVC) and flexible (soft) PVC. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products.   »  PVC and Its Different Forms There are two main classes of PVC (Figure 2): The addition of plasticisers to PVC acts as a lubricant to the rigid crystalline polymer chains, lowering the crystallinity and yielding a much clearer and flexible plastic material. Rigid PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Unmodified polyvinylchloride is a very rigid thermoplastic. Second only to polyethylene among the plastics in production and consumption, PVC is used in an enormous range of domestic and industrial products, from raincoats and shower curtains to window frames and indoor plumbing. Heat stabilisers increase the thermal stability, and lubricants reduce the melt viscosity preventing overheating. PVC has excellent electrical insulation properties, making it ideal for cabling applications. Xytron™ (PPS)’s Withstand Durability Challenges & Extend Service Life, With UBE's Polycarbonate-based Urethane Prepolymers Series, Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc. PVC is Cheap & readily available. Glass transition temperature: 85 o C. . [Online]. And here's an interesting fact: you can increase the syndiotactic content even more using a couple of tricks. Melting temperature: 240 o C. . A comparison of some important properties of the two different classes is included in the table below. VCM molecules are polymerized to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customized PVC compound.   »  Recyclability and Toxicity of PVC If that’s okay, click “Accept all.” To change your preferences, click “Open cookie settings.” You will find more information about cookies on our privacy policy page. Quick Links to the Detailed Profile: Extrusion temperatures are 10-20°C below injection molding temperatures in order to avoid premature thermal degradation. Rigid PVC, Ethyleneglycol (Ethane diol) @ 100%, 100°C, Ethyleneglycol (Ethane diol) @ 100%, 50°C.   »  Popular Applications of Vinyl Resin PVC, in full polyvinyl chloride, a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of vinyl chloride. In summary, PVC has the following properties: Good physical properties ; Low heat resistance ; Good chemical resistance ; Excellent transparency ; Good flame resistance; Typical End Uses. The initial PVC powder costs more than the particles used in the former process; however, the equipment needed is contrastingly inexpensive. So, what is PVC? PVC is the most sought after polymer material in the building and construction industry and currently accounts for 10.2% of the overall European plastic demand, trailing polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) [1]. This solid form can then be modified with the addition of fillers and plasticisers depending on the task at hand. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PROPERTIES PVC is the most widely used member of the vinyl family. Figure 1.Polyvinyl Chloride structure PVC is a white, brittle solid available in powder form or granules, formed through an addition polymerisationreaction between vinyl chloride monomers (Figure 1). poly(vinyl chloride) information, structure, and properties. There are two popular methods for the manufacture of PVC through the addition polymerisation process shown above: In the suspension process, the obtained PVC particles are mixed with plasticisers and can be then extruded in pellets, which are further used for extrusion, calendering, injection moulding and so on. A polyurethane blend also offers similar results with increased abrasion and chemical resistance. PVC is Biocompatible. Figure 2. Other products made using PVC include flooring, wall covering, and ceiling systems. This process makes PVC strong, lightweight, and durable making it an ideal material for a variety of applications. Offers clarity & transparency. »  What are the main characteristics of PVC? PVC also has inherent flame resistance. It is the world’s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after, » View all PVC commercial grades and suppliers in Omnexus Plastics Database, » Compare properties of flexible PVC Vs. rigid PVC in detail, Suspension Polymerization accounts for 80% of PVC production worldwide, Take the course - PVC Stabilizers: Decoding the Black Box to Meet Processing & Quality Needs, certain phthalates are now confirmed safe, Manufacturing Long-lasting & Efficient Fuel Cells, Maximize the Resistance of Your Polyurethanes Over Time, 1 Comments on "Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)", This is a great article. What it is made up of? PVC offers excellent corrosion and weather resistance. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Values SPECIFICATION SHEET All information, recommendations and suggestions appearing in this literature concerning the use of our products are based upon test and data believed to be reliable; however, it is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability for their own use of the products described herein. It also has very good insulation properties and is used to make electrical cables. It's currently ranked as the third most widely used plastic in the world (behind polyethylene and polypropylene). PVC has extensive European food contact and medical approvals PVC is easy to process, long lasting, tough and light PVC can also be blended with other thermoplastic materials to improve specific properties. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). Some further uses of flexible PVC include waterproof clothing, life-jackets, inflatables and sporting goods. »  Processing Techniques for Rigid and Flexible PVC, »  Properties Comparison: Flexible PVC Vs. This lowers the crystallinity of the polymer, increasing its flexibility and ability to be moulded into useful shapes such as containers and packaging. Comparison between the compositions of flexible polyvinyl chloride (Top) and rigid polyvinyl chloride (Bottom) [3]. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the worldwide plastic used due to the inherent properties such as durability, corrosive resistance, low cost, and high performance made PVC a versatile polymer with several applications for instance, pipes, profiles, flooring, cable insulation, roofing, packaging, bottling, and the medical applications. This polymerisation reaction proceeds by a free-radical mechanism. Polyester blends combine the excellent processing characteristics of PVC with the superior physical properties of polyesters, increasing abrasion resistance, tensile strength and tear resistance. ... Good properties. Hydrophobic PVC polymers cause fouling of the membrane pores due to the adherence of organic molecules to the surface of the membrane. A frequent method of processing PVC involves the suspension of solid particles of the polymer in an appropriate plasticizer. polyvinyl chloride/vinyl chloride resin, is a raw material used in a vast range of applications. PVC was first made 'unintentionally' in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann. Polyvinyl chloride is most widely known for the rigid PVC pipe used in plumbing and water infrastructure systems. What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and What is it Used For? Little or no maintenance is requires. When used for car components, PVC thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents. It needs to be modified before being processed into finished products. Its good impact strength and weatherproof attributes make it ideal for construction products. Register for freeForgot Password ? Available: https://omnexus.specialchem.com/selection-guide/polyvinyl-chloride-pvc-plastic, [3] KEMI, “Statistics in brief - PVC,” [Online]. Due to its versatile properties, such as lightweight, durable, low cost and easy processability, PVC is now replacing traditional building materials like wood, metal, concrete, rubber, ceramics, etc.   »  Properties Comparison: Flexible PVC Vs. Hence, it is ideal for making things like window frames, door profiles, and roofing systems. It is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer. We also use them to provide you more relevant information and improve our platform and search tools. Polyvinyl chloride (or vinyl) has stable physical properties, and excellent transparency. Flexible PVC is used in oxygen tents, gloves, bags and tubing for blood transfusions, drips and dialysis liquids due to its chemical resistance and durability. Get detailed technical information on Polyvinyl Chloride and its features. When subjected to heat, vinyl compounds initiate a self-accelerating dehydrochlorination reaction and these stabilizers neutralize the HCl produced enhancing the life of polymer. It can be easily extruded, calendered and die-cut, and is printable with conventional screen and offset printing methods. Figure 1. The properties of the material can be varied by the addition of fillers, plasticizers, stabilizers and colourants. Available: https://www.kemi.se/en/statistics/statistics-in-brief/substances-and-substance-groups/pvc, Plasticized Polyvinyl chloride, plasticized (PPVC). PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a thermoplastic material that can be melted repeatedly at certain temperatures and will harden upon cooling. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. This number, however, continues to increase as it looks to replace traditional materials such as wood, metal, concrete and ceramics in a variety of applications. Comparison between the properties of flexible polyvinyl chloride and rigid polyvinyl chloride [2], Thermal Insulation (Thermal Conductivity). In addition, it is easily altered by the addition of plasticizers, impact modifiers and other ingredients. »  What are the main characteristics of PVC? He exposed vinyl chloride gas sealed in a tube to sunlight and produced a white solid called PVC. Flame Retardancy: Because of its high chlorine content, PVC products are self- extinguishing. Some of the key suppliers of PVC are: No Account yet? PVC offers excellent chemical and flame resistance, strength-to-weight ratio and dielectric properties along with good tensile, flexural and mechanical strength, low moisture absorption and exceptional dimensional stability. Construction: Polyvinyl Chloride is strong, light in weight, and durable. © 2021 Matmatch GmbH, All rights reserved. There are discrepancies in the literature with regard to Factors to be considered while selecting, Fillers are added in PVC compounds for a variety of reasons. This solid form can then be modified with the addition of fillers and plasticisers depending on the task at hand. Another great posting from Arlington Machinery can be found here: https://www.arlingtonmachinery.com/blog/p.170518001/pvc-recycling-comes-into-its-own/, Your email address and name will not be published, submitting a comment or rating implies your acceptance to. It is a white, brittle solid material available in powder form or granules. It is fabricated efficiently into a wide range of both rigid and flexible products. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is a high strength thermoplastic material widely used in applications, such as pipes, medical devices, wire and cable insulation...the list is endless. Polyvinyl chloride is produced in an addition polymerisation reaction using the chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomer. There are, therefore, many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties. Rigid PVC. PVC is a white, brittle solid available in powder form or granules, formed through an addition polymerisation reaction between vinyl chloride monomers (Figure 1). Figure 2.Compari… There are, therefore, many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a popular thermoplastic that's odorless, solid, brittle, and generally white in color. We connect engineers, product designers and procurement teams with the best materials and suppliers for their job. It is most commonly used in pipe and fittings. Compatible plasticisers can be added as softening agents to enhance some mechanical properties, while fillers can increase the stiffness, impact performance and add colour, opacity and conductivity. Production and Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is manufactured by chlorinating the PVC product, typically increasing its chlorine content from 56% to 66% [2]. In fashion, furniture and all types of indoor and outdoor accessories, PVC open up functional and design opportunities that are both visually striking and fundamentally practical. Processing equipment is typically very expensive. [Online]. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. To create pipes and other hollow tubes such as air ducts, we use twin sheet forming. The tensile properties of the extrusion coated core yarn are essentially … Additives are used to modify the properties of polyvinyl chloride to make it more useful. Polyvinyl chloride is a white, rigid, quite brittle, solid.   »  How PVC is manufactured?   »  Processing Techniques for Rigid and Flexible PVC PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties, but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non-polar polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyvinyl Chloride structure [2]. Definition: Polymerization of vinyl chloride (monomer) results in the production of polyvinylchloride or PVC, which is its abbreviated name. In short, PVC enables us to live better, richer and, p… Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is a thermoplastic material having outstanding corrosion resistance, excellent electric insulating properties and good mechanical strength. Polyvinyl chloride, PVC material is a perfect mix of desired properties for different kind of plastic products. Its oxidation index is ≥45. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Products Regular and High Performance PVC EY Technologies constructs its extrusion coated braid harness yarns with high tenacity, synthetic multifilament core yarns. PVC can also be blended with nitrile rubber (NBR), to increase flexibility and elastic recovery properties. The PVC product is then commonly moulded into desired shapes using extrusion, injection moulding and calendering. Its most well-known application is the formation of PVC pipes in the building and construction industry, but the benefits of PVC extend far beyond this into the medical, electrical and protective clothing sectors. Vinyl products can be broadly divided into rigid and flexible materials. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with the molecular formula shown in Figure 1, is a relatively cheap polymer with suitable chemical characteristics for use as a membrane material. Amorphous density at 25 o C: 1.385 g/cm 3.. Crystalline density at 25 o C: 1.52 g/cm 3.. Molecular weight of repeat unit: 62.50 g/mol. Properties of polyvinyl chloride. Matmatch uses cookies and similar technologies to improve your experience and measure your interactions with our website. In the emulsion process, PVC powder is mixed with plasticisers to produce a paste/resin, which is then used for coatings, dipping and spraying. On the other hand, without the addition of these plasticisers, PVC remains a rigid, stiff material with high resistance to impact, weather, chemicals and corrosive environments. PVC resin obtained from the above processes is extremely unstable due to low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. *Please select more than one item to compare Today, a, Flexible PVC has lower chemical resistance than rigid PVC, Rigid PVC has low continuous service temperature of 50°C, Material Injection Pressure: Up to 150 MPa, Recommended Screw with an L/D ratio of 15 to 18. Poly(vinyl chloride) is the plastic known at the hardware store as PVC. In the electrical industry, PVC is very useful in insulation pipes, jacketing, switches, plug housings and battery terminals due to its high electrical insulation and dielectric strength. It is heavier than air and has relatively low solubility. Search results for polyvinyl chloride at Sigma-Aldrich. Properties Polyvinyl, also known as poly(vinyl chloride) or PVC, is the third most widely produced synthetic plastic. How to process it? The equipment necessary for such a process is typically very expensive. Not only are these rigid PVC sheets and tubes used commonly for pipes, window frames and roofing produced in the construction industry, but also for much of the safety equipment worn by the construction workers themselves. Low thermal conductivity. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). A major problem in the recycling of polyvinyl chloride is the high chlorine content in raw PVC and high levels of hazardous additives added to the polymer to achieve the desired material quality. PVC is one of the most used plastic materials in the world. Available: https://www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf, [2] SpecialChem, “Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC),” 2017. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is a thermoplastic made of 57% chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt) and 43% carbon (derived predominantly from oil / gas via ethylene). Properties of polyvinyl chloride What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and What is it Used For? It is economical and highly resistant to chemicals. The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. It is the world’s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after polyethylene and polypropylene. in several applications. Resulting products can be PVC films, sheets, boards and tubes. Disadvantages and advantage Polyvinyl chloride, PVC. It can also be easily reprocessed using heat. Flexibility can be increased over a wide range by adding varying amounts of several plasticizers such as dioctyl phthalate. This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe is everywhere. Processing Equipment may or may not be very expensive, PVC has a very low thermal stability and stabilizers help prevent degradation of polymer during processing or exposure to light. We are using PVC because; they make life safer, bring comfort and joy, and help conserve natural resources. Properties. Although flexible PVC also has a range of applications in the construction industry as in flooring, cable insulations, and waterproof linings, its most useful application is in the medical industry. Under ambient conditions, vinyl chloride is a colourless, flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour. Table 1. Window Frames, Pipes, House Siding, Ports, Roofing, Waterproof Membranes, Cable Insulations, Roof Lining, Greenhouses, Curtain Rails, Drawer Sides, Laminates, Audio and Videotape Cases, Records, Flooring, Wall Coverings, Shower Curtains, Leather Cloth, Hosepipes, Bottles, Blister Packs, Transparent Packs and Punnets, Under Seal, Roof Linings, Leather Cloth Upholstery, Wiring Insulation, Window Seals, Decorative Trim, Oxygen Tents, Bags And Tubing For Blood Transfusions, Drips and Dialysis Liquids, Waterproofs for Fishermen and Emergency Services, Life-Jackets, Shoes, Wellington Boots, Aprons and Baby Pants, Insulation pipes, Jacketing, Electricity Distribution Boxes, Switches, Transparent Distributor Box Housings, Plug Housings & Battery Terminals, Cable & Wire insulation, plugs, cable jackets, sockets, Sable Heads and Distributors, Floppy-Disk Covers, Credit Cards, Traffic Signs, Conveyor Belts, Inflatables, Sports Goods, Toys, Garden Hoses, FDA compliant & also suitable for transparent applications, Better chemical resistance than plasticized PVC, Good electrical insulation & vapor barrier properties, Good dimensional stability at room temperature, Limited solvent stress cracking resistance, Becomes brittle at 5°C (when not modified with impact modifiers and/or processing aids), Low cost, flexible & high impact strength, Good resistance to UV, acids, alkalis, oils and many corrosive inorganic chemicals, Non-flammable & versatile performance profile, Properties can change with time, due to plasticizer migration, Attacked by ketones; some grades swollen or attacked by chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, some aromatic ethers and amines, and nitro- compounds, Non-suitable for food contact with some plasticizers. 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